tm2034271-4_424b7 - none - 9.21875s
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration Statement Nos. 333-223555-01 and 333-223555
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price
Amount of
Registration
Fee(1)
Carnival Corporation:
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
$1,500,000,000
$163,650.00
Carnival plc:
Special Voting Share, nominal value GBP 1.00(2)
(4)
(4)
Trust Shares of beneficial interest in P&O Princess Special Voting Trust(3)
(4)
(4)
(1)
Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(r) and 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, based on the maximum aggregate offering price.
(2)
Represents one special voting share of Carnival plc issued to the P&O Princess Special Voting Trust in connection with the dual listed company transaction completed by Carnival plc and Carnival Corporation on April 17, 2003.
(3)
Represents trust shares of beneficial interest in the P&O Princess Special Voting Trust, and such trust shares represent a beneficial interest in the special voting share of Carnival plc. As a result of the dual listed company transaction, one trust share is paired with each share of Carnival Corporation common stock and is not transferable separately from the share of Carnival Corporation common stock. Upon each issuance of shares of Carnival Corporation common stock hereunder, recipients will receive both shares of Carnival Corporation common stock and an equivalent number of paired trust shares.
(4)
No additional fee is payable in respect of these securities because no additional consideration is payable in respect of these securities.

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Prospectus Supplement
(To Prospectus dated March 9, 2018)
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Carnival Corporation
Up to $1,500,000,000 of Common Stock
We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with the financial institutions named below, each a “sales agent” and, collectively the “sales agents”, relating to the offer and sale from time to time of shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus pursuant to a continuous offering program. In accordance with the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may, from time to time, offer and sell our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $1,500,000,000 through, at our discretion, the sales agents, each acting as our sales agent, severally and not jointly, for the offer and sale of shares of our common stock. References to shares of our common stock include the trust shares of beneficial interest in the P&O Princess Special Voting Trust. See “Description of Capital Stock” and “Description of Trust Shares” in the accompanying prospectus and in Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s joint Annual Report (as defined herein) incorporated by reference herein.
Our common stock is listed and trades on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “CCL.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE on November 9, 2020 was $19.25 per share.
Sales, if any, of common stock made under the equity distribution agreement may be made by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions, to or through a market maker, on or through the NYSE or any other market venue where the securities may be traded, in the over-the-counter market, in privately negotiated transactions, in block trades, in transactions that are deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or through a combination of any such methods of sale. The sales agents may also sell our common stock by any other method permitted by law. The shares of common stock may be sold at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices.
We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through the sales agents on a daily basis or otherwise as we and the sales agents agree and the minimum price per share at which such common stock may be sold. None of the sales agents is required to sell any specific dollar amount of shares. Subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, the sales agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal sales and trading practices to sell on our behalf all of the designated shares of common stock. We may instruct the sales agents not to sell any common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. We or any sales agent, with respect to itself only, may suspend the offering of our common stock by notifying the other party. The offering of our common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of the (i) sale of all of our shares of common stock subject to the equity distribution agreement or (ii) termination of the equity distribution agreement by us or by the sales agents as provided therein.
We will pay the sales agents an aggregate commission of up to 1% of the gross sales price per share of common stock under the equity distribution agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse the sales agents for certain of their expenses. In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock on our behalf, each of the sales agents may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to each of the sales agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may also sell shares to each of the sales agents as principal for its own respective account at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a sales agent as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with that sales agent, setting forth the terms of such transaction, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
Settlement of any sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day following the date on which such sales were made (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading). There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the sales agents may agree.
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Description of Capital Stock — Certain Provisions of Carnival Corporation’s Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws — Ownership Limitations and Transfer Restrictions” in the accompanying prospectus and in our Annual Report.
Investing in our common stock involves risks. See the “Risk Factors” section in this prospectus supplement and page 2 of the accompanying prospectus, as well as the “Risk Factors” section in our Annual Report as filed on March 31, 2020 and as further updated by our Quarterly Reports as filed on April 3, 2020, July 10, 2020 and October 8, 2020 for important factors you should consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor any state or foreign securities commission, has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The common stock has not been and will not be registered under the Panamanian Securities Law (Law-Decree N° 1 of July 8, 1999, as amended and restated from time to time, the “Panamanian Securities Laws”) with the Superintendency of Capital Markets of Panama (Superintendencia del Mercado de Valores de Panamá or “SMV”). Accordingly, (i) the common stock cannot be publicly offered or sold in Panama, except in transactions exempted from registration under the Panamanian Securities Laws, (ii) documents relating to the offering of the common stock, as well as information contained therein, may not be publicly distributed in Panama nor be used in connection with any public offering for subscription or sale of the common stock in Panama, except in transactions exempted from registration under Panamanian Securities Laws, (iii) the SMV has not reviewed the information contained in this prospectus supplement, (iv) the common stock and the offering thereof are not subject to the supervision of the SMV, and (v) the common stock do not benefit from the tax incentives provided by Panamanian Securities Laws.
J.P. Morgan Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
Prospectus Supplement dated November 10, 2020

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We have not, and the sales agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. We are not, and the sales agents are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any free writing prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate as of any date other than the respective dates of such documents or such other dates as may be specified herein or therein. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since those respective dates.
 
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About this Prospectus Supplement
This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, including the documents we incorporated by reference, which describes the specific terms of the securities that we are currently offering. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference therein, which gives more general information, some of which may not apply to the securities that we are currently offering. Generally, the term “prospectus” refers to both parts combined, including information that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Before you invest, you should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and all information incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the additional information described under the sections titled “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus and “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. These documents contain information you should consider when making your investment decision. This prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in the accompanying prospectus. To the extent that any statement that we make in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying prospectus, the statements made in this prospectus supplement or any documents incorporated by reference herein will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference therein.
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any authorized free writing prospectus we may provide to you in connection with this offering. Neither we nor any sales agent has authorized any other person to provide you with any information that is different. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of our common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.
Unless the context otherwise requires, references to “Carnival Corporation,” “we,” “us” and “our” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus are references to Carnival Corporation including, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, its subsidiaries. References to “Carnival plc” are to Carnival plc including, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, its subsidiaries. References to “Carnival Corporation & plc” are to both Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc collectively, following the establishment of our dual listed company (“DLC”) arrangement. Terms used in this prospectus supplement that are otherwise not defined will have the meanings given to them in the accompanying prospectus (as supplemented from time to time).
References in this prospectus supplement to “U.S. dollars,” “dollars” and “$” are to the currency of the United States of America and references to “€” and “euro” are to the single currency introduced at the third stage of the European Monetary Union pursuant to the Treaty establishing the European Community, as amended. Unless otherwise specified herein, foreign currency amounts have been converted into U.S. dollars at the applicable exchange rate on August 31, 2020. The rates may differ from the actual rates used in the
 
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preparation of our consolidated financial statements and other financial information appearing in this prospectus supplement. We make no representation that such foreign currency or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this prospectus supplement have been, could have been or could, in the future, be converted into U.S. dollars or the applicable foreign currency, as the case may be, at any particular rate, if at all.
The securities are being offered only for sale in jurisdictions where it is lawful to make such offers. Offers and sales of the securities in certain jurisdictions are subject to restrictions, the details of which are set out in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus supplement. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the securities in other jurisdictions may also be restricted by law. Persons who receive this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus should inform themselves about and observe any such restrictions. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer or solicitation by anyone in any jurisdiction in which such offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus supplement.
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
Forward-Looking Statements
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, contains or incorporates by reference “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions with respect to us, including some statements concerning future results, operations, outlooks, plans, goals, reputation, cash flows, liquidity and other events which have not yet occurred. These statements are intended to qualify for the safe harbors from liability provided by Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical facts are statements that could be deemed forward-looking. These statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. We have tried, whenever possible, to identify these statements by using words like “will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “believe,” “depends,” “expect,” “goal,” “anticipate,” “forecast,” “project,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “target,” “indicate,” “outlook,” and similar expressions of future intent or the negative of such terms.
Forward-looking statements include those statements that relate to our outlook and financial position including, but not limited to, statements regarding:

pricing;

booking levels;

occupancy;

interest, tax and fuel expenses;

currency exchange rates;

net cruise costs, excluding fuel per available lower berth day;

estimates of ship depreciable lives and residual values;

goodwill, ship and trademark fair values;

liquidity and credit ratings;

adjusted earnings per share; and

the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus global pandemic on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Because forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, there are many factors that could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied in this prospectus supplement or the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. This note contains important cautionary statements of the known factors that we consider could materially affect the accuracy of our forward-looking statements and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, many of these risks and uncertainties are currently amplified by and will continue to be amplified by, or in the future may be amplified by, the COVID-19 outbreak. It is not possible to predict or identify all such risks. There may be additional risks that we consider immaterial or which are unknown in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

COVID-19 has had, and is expected to continue to have, a significant impact on our financial condition and operations, which impacts our ability to obtain acceptable financing to fund resulting reductions in cash from operations. The current, and uncertain future, impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, including its effect on the ability or desire of people to travel (including on cruises), is expected to continue to impact our results, operations, outlooks, plans, goals, reputation, litigation, cash flows, liquidity, and stock price;

as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, we may be out of compliance with a maintenance covenant in certain of our debt facilities, for which we have waivers for the period through August 31, 2021 with the next testing date of November 30, 2021;

world events impacting the ability or desire of people to travel may lead to a decline in demand for cruises;

incidents concerning our ships, guests or the cruise vacation industry as well as adverse weather conditions and other natural disasters may impact the satisfaction of our guests and crew and lead to reputational damage;

changes in and non-compliance with laws and regulations under which we operate, such as those relating to health, environment, safety and security, data privacy and protection, anti-corruption, economic sanctions, trade protection and tax may lead to litigation, enforcement actions, fines, penalties and reputational damage;

breaches in data security and lapses in data privacy as well as disruptions and other damages to our principal offices, information technology operations and system networks, including the recent ransomware incident, and failure to keep pace with developments in technology may adversely impact our business operations, the satisfaction of our guests and crew and lead to reputational damage;

ability to recruit, develop and retain qualified shipboard personnel who live away from home for extended periods of time may adversely impact our business operations, guest services and satisfaction;

increases in fuel prices, changes in the types of fuel consumed and availability of fuel supply may adversely impact our scheduled itineraries and costs;

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may adversely impact our financial results;

overcapacity and competition in the cruise and land-based vacation industry may lead to a decline in our cruise sales, pricing and destination options;

geographic regions in which we try to expand our business may be slow to develop or ultimately not develop how we expect; and

inability to implement our shipbuilding programs and ship repairs, maintenance and refurbishments may adversely impact our business operations and the satisfaction of our guests.
The ordering of the risk factors set forth above is not intended to reflect our indication of priority or likelihood.
These risks and other risks are detailed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in the reports of Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc filed with the SEC. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and those reports contain important cautionary statements and a discussion of many of the factors that could materially affect the
 
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accuracy of Carnival Corporation & plc’s forward-looking statements and/or adversely affect Carnival Corporation & plc’s businesses, results of operations and financial position. Such statements and factors are incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference.
Forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as a prediction of actual results. Subject to any continuing obligations under applicable law or any relevant stock exchange rules, Carnival Corporation & plc expressly disclaim any obligation to disseminate, after the date of this prospectus supplement, any updates or revisions to any such forward-looking statements to reflect any change in expectations or events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements are based.
Incorporation by Reference
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information we have filed with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. The information set forth in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is superseded by the information set forth in this prospectus supplement. The following documents have been filed by us with the SEC and are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus:

Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s joint Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended November 30, 2019 as filed on January 28, 2020 (including “Description of Equity Securities Registered Under Section 12 of the Exchange Act”, as set forth in Exhibit 4.12 filed thereto), as amended by the Form 10-K/A for the year ended November 30, 2019 as filed on March 31, 2020 and as further updated (the financial statements and the auditor’s report thereon supersede the financial statements and auditor’s reports thereon included in the original Form 10-K) by Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s joint Current Report on Form 8-K as filed on March 31, 2020 (the “Annual Report”);

the information responsive to Part III of the Annual Report, provided in Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed on February 26, 2020 and incorporated by reference into the Annual Report;

Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s joint Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended February 29, 2020 as filed on April 3, 2020, for the quarter ended May 31, 2020 as filed on July 10, 2020 and for the quarter ended August 31, 2020 as filed on October 8, 2020 (together the “Quarterly Reports”); and

Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s joint Current Reports on Form 8-K as filed on March 16, 2020, March 31, 2020, March 31, 2020, April 2, 2020, April 6, 2020, April 8, 2020, April 9, 2020, April 21, 2020, June 26, 2020, June 30, 2020, July 1, 2020, July 15, 2020, July 20, 2020, July 29, 2020, August 7, 2020, August 14, 2020, August 14, 2020, August 17, 2020, August 18, 2020, September 15, 2020 and October 8, 2020 (in each case, other than information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any such Current Report on Form 8-K).
All documents and reports that we file with the SEC (other than any portion of such filings that are furnished under applicable SEC rules rather than filed) under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from the date of this prospectus supplement until the termination of the offering under this prospectus supplement shall be deemed to be incorporated into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by reference. The information contained on our website (carnivalcorp.com) is not incorporated into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Our reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference only.
 
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Where You Can Find More Information
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may obtain such SEC filings from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. These filings, which include our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and proxy statements on Schedule 14A, as well as any amendments to those reports and proxy statements, are available free of charge through our website (www.carnivalcorp.com/investor-relations) as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. The information contained on our website (www.carnivalcorp.com) is not incorporated into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Our reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. As permitted by SEC rules, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus does not contain all of the information we have included in the registration statement and the accompanying exhibits and schedules we file with the SEC. You may refer to the registration statement, exhibits and schedules for more information about us and the securities. The registration statement, exhibits and schedules are available through the SEC’s website.
 
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Summary
This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the sections titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus, our consolidated financial statements and related notes, and the other information that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement, including the section titled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report and our Quarterly Reports.
Overview
We are one of the world’s largest leisure travel companies with operations in North America, Australia, Europe and Asia. With a deep commitment to compliance, environmental protection and the health, safety and well-being of our guests, crew and the communities our ships visit, our portfolio features nine of the world’s leading cruise lines — Carnival Cruise Line, Princess Cruises, Holland America Line, P&O Cruises (Australia), Seabourn, Costa Cruises, AIDA Cruises, P&O Cruises (UK) and Cunard.
Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc operate a dual listed company (“DLC”), whereby the businesses of Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc are combined through a number of contracts and through provisions in Carnival Corporation’s Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws and Carnival plc’s Articles of Association. The two companies operate as a single economic enterprise with a single executive management team and identical Boards of Directors, but each has retained its separate legal identity. Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc are both public companies, with separate stock exchange listings and their own shareholders. For a description of our business, financial condition, results of operations and other important information regarding us, see “— Recent Developments”, “Risk Factors” and our filings with the SEC incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. For instructions on how to find copies of these and our other filings incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, see “Where You Can Find More Information”.
Recent Developments
Resumption of guest operations
In the face of the global impact of COVID-19, we paused our guest cruise operations in mid-March. In September and October, we resumed limited guest operations with Costa Cruises (“Costa”) and AIDA Cruises (“AIDA”), respectively. Costa is in the process of beginning our anticipated gradual, phased-in resumption of guest cruise operations. Costa’s initial cruises will continue to take place with reduced passenger capacity and enhanced health protocols developed with government and health authorities, and guidance from our roster of medical and scientific experts. AIDA has paused its cruises through November 30, 2020, as a result of the announcement of the Federal Government of Germany on October 28, 2020 of further restrictions on public life to limit the spread of COVID-19.
Other brands and ships are expected to return to service over time to provide guests with vacations in a manner consistent with our highest priorities, which are compliance, environmental protection and the health, safety and well-being of our guests, crew, shoreside employees and the people in the communities our ships visit. Many of our brands source the majority of their guests from the geographical region in which they operate. In the current environment, we believe this will benefit us in resuming guest cruise operations.
Health and safety protocols
Working with global and national health authorities and medical experts, Costa and AIDA have a comprehensive set of health and hygiene protocols to help facilitate a safe and healthy return to cruise vacations. Both brands are providing guests with detailed information about enhanced protocols, which are
 
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modeled after shoreside health and mitigation guidelines as provided by each brand’s respective country, and approved by the flag state, Italy. Protocols will be updated based on evolving scientific and medical knowledge related to mitigation strategies.
Costa is the first cruise company to earn the Biosafety Trust Certification from Registro Italiano Navale (“RINA”). The certification process examined all aspects of life onboard and ashore and assessed the compliance of the system with procedures aimed at the prevention and control of infections. Costa’s comprehensive set of measures and procedures implemented on the ships that resumed operations cover key areas such as crew health and safety, the booking process, guest activities, entertainment and dining, and medical care on board, as well as pre-boarding, embarkation and disembarkation operations, which includes testing for all guests prior to embarkation.
More broadly, as the understanding of COVID-19 continues to evolve, we have been working with a number of world-leading public health, epidemiological and policy experts to support our ongoing efforts with enhanced protocols and procedures for the return of cruise vacations. These advisors will continue to provide guidance based on the latest scientific evidence and best practices for protection and mitigation, as well as regulatory requirements. We, in conjunction with our advisors, are currently evaluating the requirements set forth in the framework for a phased resumption of cruise ship passenger operations in U.S. waters announced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”). The framework, which is effective upon the expiration of the CDC’s No Sail Order on October 31, 2020, consists of several initial requirements that cruise ship operators such as us would need to follow prior to resuming guest operations, including those relating to testing and additional safeguards for crew members and the development of laboratory capacity needed to test future passengers.
The requirements outlined in the CDC’s framework include:

Establishment of laboratory testing of crew and guests onboard cruise ships in U.S. waters and upon embarkation and disembarkation;

Simulated voyages designed to test a cruise ship operators’ ability to mitigate COVID-19 on cruise ships;

Meeting and maintaining requirements for a Conditional Sailing Certificate, which include, among other things, implementing the required testing protocols, a prohibition on offering itineraries longer than seven days, and the demonstration at each port where a ship intends to dock of approval with U.S. port and local health authorities, which requires medical care agreements addressing evacuation to onshore hospitals, housing agreements with onshore facilities for isolation and quarantine of COVID-19 cases, and port agreements to limit the number of cruise ships at any single port; and

A return to passenger voyages in a manner that mitigates the risk of COVID-19 introduction, transmission, or spread among passengers and crew onboard ships and ashore to communities.
We believe there are a significant number of requirements in the framework that must be evaluated in the context of our plans to resume operations. Further, the framework is subject to additional technical instructions and orders from the CDC (including in connection with subsequent phases for resumption, which are expected to include simulated voyages and certification requirements) that are currently uncertain and will require further evaluation as we seek to resume operations. Implementing these initial and subsequent requirements may be costly and take time before the resumption of our guest operations.
Optimizing the future fleet
We expect future capacity to be moderated by the phased re-entry of our ships, the removal of capacity from our fleet and delays in new ship deliveries. Since the pause in guest operations, we have accelerated the removal of ships from our fleet in fiscal 2020 which were previously expected to be sold over the ensuing years. We now expect to dispose of 18 ships. As of October 31, 2020, 10 of those ships have already left the fleet. In total, the 18 ships represent approximately 12 percent of pre-pause capacity and only three percent of operating income in 2019. The sale of less efficient ships will result in future operating expense efficiencies of approximately two percent per available lower berth day (“ALBD”) and a reduction in fuel consumption of approximately one percent per ALBD. We have also delayed the delivery of certain new ships joining our fleet. Enchanted Princess was delivered in September 2020 and Iona was delivered in
 
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October 2020, and they are the only ships of the four ships originally scheduled for delivery in fiscal 2020, following the start of the pause, that will be delivered prior to the end of fiscal 2020. Including these two deliveries, we currently expect only five of the nine ships originally scheduled for delivery in fiscal 2020 and 2021, following the start of the pause, to be delivered prior to the end of fiscal year 2021. We currently expect nine cruise ships and two smaller expedition ships of the 13 ships originally scheduled for delivery prior to the end of fiscal year 2022, following the start of the pause, to be delivered by then.
Based on the actions taken to date and the currently expected newbuild deliveries through 2022, our fleet will be more efficient with a roughly 13 percent larger average berth size per ship and an average age of 12 years in 2022 versus 13 years, in each case as compared to 2019.
Update on Bookings
While we believe bookings in the first half of 2021 reflect expectations of the phased resumption of our guest cruise operations and anticipated itinerary changes, as of September 20, 2020, cumulative advanced bookings for the second half of 2021 capacity currently available for sale are at the higher end of the historical range. We believe this demonstrates the long-term potential demand for cruising. Pricing on these bookings are lower by mid-single digits versus the second half of 2019, on a comparable basis, reflecting the effect of future cruise credits (“FCCs”) from previously cancelled cruises being applied. We continue to take bookings for both 2021 and 2022.
We are providing flexibility to guests with bookings on sailings cancelled by allowing guests to receive enhanced FCCs or elect to receive refunds in cash. Enhanced FCCs increase the value of the guest’s original booking or provide incremental onboard credits. As of September 20, 2020, approximately 45 percent of guests affected by our schedule changes have received enhanced FCCs and approximately 55 percent have requested refunds.
Total customer deposits balance at August 31, 2020, was $2.4 billion, the majority of which are FCCs, compared to total customer deposits balance of $2.9 billion at May 31, 2020. The decline in customer deposits is consistent with previous expectations. As of August 31, 2020, the current portion of customer deposits was $2.1 billion with $0.1 billion relating to fourth quarter sailings. Approximately 60 percent of bookings taken during the three weeks ended September 20, 2020 were new bookings, as opposed to FCC re-bookings, despite minimal advertising or marketing.
Increasing liquidity
We have taken, and continue to take, significant actions to preserve cash and secure additional financing to increase our liquidity. Since March 2020, we have raised $14 billion in additional capital through a series of financing transactions through October 31, 2020, and expect to raise additional capital (including through significant equity issuances) in the future. We have completed the following transactions:

On March 13, 2020, we fully drew down our $3.0 billion revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Facility”) pursuant to our multicurrency unsecured senior facilities agreement (the “Revolving Facility Agreement”).

On March 24, 2020, we settled outstanding derivatives resulting in proceeds of $220 million.

In April 2020, we completed (i) a public offering of 71,875,000 shares of Carnival Corporation’s common stock at a price per share of $8.00, resulting in net proceeds of $556 million and (ii) a private offering of $2.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 5.75% convertible senior notes due 2023 (the “Convertible Notes”). The Convertible Notes mature on April 1, 2023, and our obligations thereunder are guaranteed (on an unsecured basis) by Carnival plc and certain of our subsidiaries. The Convertible Notes are convertible by the holders, subject to certain conditions, into cash, shares of our common stock or a combination thereof, at our election. The Convertible Notes are currently convertible by a holder at any time during the fiscal quarter ending on November 30, 2020. The initial conversion rate is 100.0000 shares of Carnival Corporation’s common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Convertible Notes (equivalent to an initial conversion price of $10.00 per share of our common stock).
 
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On April 8, 2020, we completed a private offering of $4.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 11.500% first-priority senior secured notes due 2023 (the “2023 First Lien Notes”). The 2023 First Lien Notes mature on April 1, 2023. Our obligations under the 2023 First Lien Notes are guaranteed by Carnival plc and certain of our subsidiaries and are secured on a first-priority basis by certain of our assets, consisting of (i) shares of capital stock of each subsidiary guarantor, (ii) each of the vessels owned or operated by the issuer and the guarantors and an assignment of insurance claims and earnings in respect of such vessels, (iii) the material intellectual property owned or controlled by the issuer and the guarantors as of April 8, 2020, (iv) other assets of the issuer and the guarantors consisting of inventory, trade receivables, intangibles, computer software and casino equipment, in each case associated with the vessels being mortgaged and (v) other assets on which the issuer and the guarantors may elect from time to time to grant a lien, in each case subject to certain exclusions (collectively, the “Collateral”). In connection with the issuance of the 2023 First Lien Notes, our obligations under the EIB Facility (as defined herein) and Carnival plc’s $192 million aggregate principal amount of 7.875% Debentures due June 1, 2027 (the “2027 First Lien Notes”) were also secured by the Collateral on a first-priority basis.

In April 2020, we extended a $166 million euro-denominated bank loan, originally maturing in 2020, to March 2021.

Certain of the counterparties to our export credit facilities have offered 12-month debt amortization and a financial covenant holiday (the “Debt Holiday”). We have entered into supplemental agreements or side letters for the Debt Holiday amendments to defer certain principal repayments otherwise due through March 31, 2021 through the creation of separate tranches of loans with repayments made over the following four years. We have also entered into supplemental agreements or side letters to waive the minimum debt service coverage financial covenant (the “Financial Covenant”) for our funded export credit facilities and certain of our unfunded export credit facilities. With respect to our funded export credit facilities, as of October 31, 2020, we have obtained Financial Covenant waivers for such facilities (which have aggregate indebtedness of $5.8 billion as of August 31, 2020), through August 31, 2021, November 30, 2021 or December 31, 2021, as applicable (with the next testing date of November 30, 2021, February 28, 2022 or February 28, 2022, respectively). We have preliminary agreements to extend the waiver for the three facilities with a waiver through August 31, 2021 (with the next testing date of November 30, 2021), which have aggregate indebtedness of $1.3 billion (as of August 31, 2020), through November 30, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022).

With respect to our unfunded export credit facilities (which have an aggregate principal amount of $9.4 billion as of August 31, 2020), as of October 31, 2020, we have obtained Financial Covenant waivers through August 31, 2021 (with the next testing date of November 30, 2021) for an aggregate principal amount of $2.7 billion, through November 30, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022) for aggregate principal of $1.2 billion (which included Enchanted Princess, funded upon delivery in September 2020) and through December 31, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022) for an aggregate principal amount of $3.7 billion (which included Iona, funded upon delivery in October 2020). For the remaining three unfunded export credit facilities with an aggregate principal amount of $1.8 billion, we are engaged in discussions with the counterparties to waive the Financial Covenant through March 31, 2021 (with the next testing date of May 31, 2021). Simultaneously with obtaining the initial waivers for these three unfunded export credit facilities, it is anticipated that extension of waivers for these facilities through November 30, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022) will be granted.

We obtained waivers of the Financial Covenant for certain of our bank loans through November 2021. We will be required to comply with the covenant beginning with the next testing date of February 28, 2022. We have also obtained waivers of the covenant for the remaining applicable bank loans through their respective maturity dates.

To further enhance our liquidity, as well as comply with the dividend restrictions contained in our recent debt agreements, we have suspended the payment of dividends on, and the repurchase of, the common stock of Carnival Corporation and the ordinary shares of Carnival plc.
 
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On June 30, 2020, we borrowed an aggregate principal amount of approximately $2.8 billion in two tranches ($1.9 billion and €800 million) under a first-priority senior secured term loan facility (the “Secured Term Loan Facility”) made available to us pursuant to a senior credit facility agreement (the “Secured Term Loan Facility Agreement”). The Secured Term Loan Facility matures on June 30, 2025. The U.S. dollar tranche bears interest at a rate per annum equal to adjusted LIBOR (with a 1% floor) plus 7.5%. The euro tranche bears interest at a rate per annum equal to EURIBOR (with a 0% floor) plus 7.5%. Both tranches of the Secured Term Loan Facility Agreement are prepayable, in whole or in part, at our option at a price equal to the face value plus a customary make-whole amount for the first year after closing, 102% of the face value for the second year after closing and par thereafter. Our obligations under the Secured Term Loan Facility Agreement are guaranteed by Carnival plc and certain of our subsidiaries, and are secured on a first-priority basis by the Collateral.

In July 2020, we extended a $337 million euro-denominated floating rate bank loan originally maturing in 2021 to 2022.

On July 20, 2020, we completed a private offering of $775 million aggregate principal amount of 10.500% second-priority senior secured notes due 2026 and €425 million aggregate principal amount of 10.125% second-priority senior secured notes due 2026 (collectively, the “2026 Second Lien Notes”). The Second Lien Notes mature on February 1, 2026. Our obligations under the Second Lien Notes are guaranteed by Carnival plc and certain of our subsidiaries and are secured on a second-priority basis by the Collateral.

On August 7 and August 10, 2020, we completed a registered direct offering of 99.2 million shares of Carnival Corporation’s common stock at a price per share of $14.02 to a limited number of holders of the Convertible Notes (the “Registered Direct Offering”). We used the proceeds from the Registered Direct Offering to repurchase $886 million aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes and pay accrued interest thereon in privately negotiated transactions.

On August 18, 2020, we completed a private offering of $900 million aggregate principal amount of 9.875% second-priority senior secured notes due 2027 (the “2027 Second Lien Notes” and, collectively with the 2026 Second Lien Notes, the “Second Lien Notes”). The 2027 Second Lien Notes mature on August 1, 2027. Our obligations under the 2027 Second Lien Notes are guaranteed by Carnival plc and certain of our subsidiaries and are secured on a second-priority basis by the Collateral.

On September 15, 2020, we entered into an equity distribution agreement with sales agents pursuant to which we may, from time to time, offer and sell shares of Carnival Corporation’s common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $1.0 billion through the sales agents (the “October ATM Offering”). On October 30, 2020, we completed the October ATM Offering, pursuant to which we sold 67.1 million shares.

In September 2020, we borrowed $610 million under an export credit facility due in semi-annual installments through 2032.

In October 2020, we borrowed $890 million under an export credit facility due in semi-annual installments through 2032.
In August 2020, we made grants, which will vest over time, under the Carnival Corporation 2020 Stock Plan to approximately 2,500 employees as part of a retention program pursuant to which approximately 5.0 million shares of our common stock are issuable under the terms of such grants.
As of August 31, 2020, after giving effect to this offering and the October ATM Offering, before deducting expenses, we would have had $10.7 billion of cash and cash equivalents. In addition, as of August 31, 2020, after giving effect to the deliveries of two ships in September 2020 and October 2020, we would have had $7.9 billion of export credit facilities to fund ship deliveries planned through 2024. We cannot assure you that our assumptions used to estimate our liquidity requirements will be correct because we have never previously experienced a complete cessation of our guest cruise operations, and as a consequence, our ability to be predictive is uncertain. However, based on our actions and assumptions with respect to COVID-19, we have concluded that we will be able to generate sufficient liquidity to satisfy our obligations for at least the next twelve months. See “Risk Factors — Additional Risks Related to Our Business.”
 
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Currently, we are unable to predict when the entire fleet will return to normal operations. The pause in guest operations continues to have a material negative impact on all aspects of our business, including our liquidity, financial position and results of operations. We expect a net loss on both a U.S. GAAP and adjusted basis for the quarter and year ending November 30, 2020. For the nine months ended August 31, 2020, we incurred a net loss of $8.0 billion.
Our monthly average cash burn rate for the third quarter 2020 was $770 million, which was in line with the anticipated monthly cash burn rate. We expect the monthly average cash burn rate for the fourth quarter of 2020 to be approximately $530 million. This results in an average monthly burn rate for the second half of the year of $650 million, as previously disclosed. This rate includes approximately $250 million of ongoing ship operating and administrative expenses, working capital changes (excluding changes in customer deposits), interest expense and committed capital expenditures (net of unfunded export credit facilities) and also excludes scheduled debt maturities as well as other cash collateral being provided (which may increase in the future). We continue to explore opportunities to further reduce our monthly cash burn rate.
We estimate non-newbuild capital expenditures during the fourth quarter of 2020 to be approximately $130 million. Our scheduled debt maturities, for debt outstanding as of August 31, 2020, are as follows:
(in billions)
Fourth Quarter
2020
First Quarter
2021
Second Quarter
2021
Third Quarter
2021
Fourth Quarter
2021
Principal payments(1)(3)
$ 1.0 $ 0.5 $ 0.3 $ 0.6 $ 0.2(2)
(1)
Excluding the Revolving Facility, which expires in 2024. As of August 31, 2020, borrowings under the Revolving Facility were $3.0 billion, which were drawn in March 2020 for an initial term of six months. The maturities for these borrowings were extended in September 2020 for an additional six months through March 2021. We may re-borrow such amounts subject to satisfaction of the conditions in the Revolving Facility Agreement.
(2)
We have a principal balance of $1.3 billion of debt outstanding as of August 31, 2020, otherwise due through 2032, for which the covenant waivers expire during the fourth quarter 2021. We are working on extending these covenant waivers. If the covenant waiver extensions are not received, we would be required to prepay the outstanding principal balance.
(3)
Excludes $1.5 billion of indebtedness incurred under export credit facilities in connection with the deliveries of two ships in September and October 2020.
Since March 2020, Moody’s and S&P Global have downgraded our corporate family, long-term issuer, senior secured and senior unsecured debt ratings, as well as short-term commercial paper credit ratings, to below investment grade. Our current short-term commercial paper credit rating prevents us from issuing additional commercial paper.
See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to COVID-19 and Liquidity/Debt — COVID-19 has had, and is expected to continue to have, a significant impact on our financial condition and operations, which impacts our ability to obtain acceptable financing to fund resulting reductions in cash from operations. The current, and uncertain future, impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, including its effect on the ability or desire of people to travel (including on cruises), is expected to continue to impact our results, operations, outlooks, plans, goals, reputation, litigation, cash flows, liquidity, and stock price.” in this prospectus supplement.
Corporate Information
Carnival Corporation
Carnival Corporation was incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Panama in November 1974. Carnival Corporation’s common stock and the paired trust shares, which trade together with the common stock, are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “CCL.” Carnival Corporation’s principal executive offices are located at Carnival Place, 3655 N.W. 87th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33178-2428. The telephone number of Carnival Corporation’s principal executive offices is (305) 599-2600.
 
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Carnival plc
Carnival plc was incorporated and registered in England and Wales as P&O Princess Cruises plc in July 2000 and was renamed “Carnival plc” on April 17, 2003, the date on which the DLC transaction with Carnival Corporation closed. Carnival plc’s ordinary shares are listed on the London Stock Exchange (“LSE”), and Carnival plc’s American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, are listed on the NYSE. Carnival plc ordinary shares trade under the ticker symbol “CCL” on the LSE. Carnival plc ADSs trade under the ticker symbol “CUK” on the NYSE. Carnival plc’s principal executive offices are located at Carnival House, 100 Harbour Parade, Southampton SO15 1ST, United Kingdom. The telephone number of Carnival plc’s principal executive offices is 011 44 23 8065 5000.
 
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The Offering
Common stock offered by us
Shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $1,500,000,000. Each share of our common stock is paired with a trust share representing a beneficial interest in the P&O Princess Special Voting Trust.
The trust shares represent a beneficial interest in the special voting share issued by Carnival plc. See “Description of Capital Stock” and “Description of Trust Shares” in the accompanying prospectus and in the Annual Report.
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
845,145,623 shares of common stock, assuming sales of 77,922,077 shares in this offering at a price of $19.25 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE on November 9, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering and, in any event, may not exceed the number of authorized and available shares under our articles of incorporation.
Sales, if any, may be made from time to time through the financial institutions named on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Use of proceeds
The net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock offered hereby, after commissions and other offering expenses, will be used for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk Factors
See “Risk Factors” herein, “Risk Factors” in the Annual Report and the Quarterly Reports and other information included or incorporated into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase our common stock.
NYSE Symbol
“CCL”
The number of shares outstanding after this offering is based on approximately 767.2 million shares of our common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020 , after giving effect to the October ATM Offering. This number excludes:

112.7 million shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Notes issued and outstanding as of August 31, 2020;

7.5 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units outstanding as of August 31, 2020 (assuming the satisfaction of performance requirements and exclusive of dividend equivalent shares at settlement, as applicable);

1.7 million shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under the Carnival Corporation Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as of August 31, 2020; and

6.4 million shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under the Carnival Corporation 2020 Stock Plan, as of August 31, 2020.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement reflects and assumes:

no vesting or settlement of restricted stock units after August 31, 2020;

no granting of shares of common stock in connection with restricted stock units after August 31, 2020; and

no conversion of our Convertible Notes issued and outstanding as of August 31, 2020 into shares of common stock.
 
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Summary Historical Financial and Other Data
The following summary historical consolidated financial and other data of Carnival Corporation should be read together with (i) “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited historical consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Annual Report and (ii) “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the unaudited historical consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Quarterly Report for the quarter ended August 31, 2020, each of which are incorporated by reference herein.
The summary historical consolidated financial and other data as of August 31, 2020 and for the nine months ended August 31, 2019 and August 31, 2020 is derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. In the opinion of management, such unaudited financial information reflects all adjustments, consisting only of normal and recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of the results for those periods. Operating results for the nine months ended August 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year.
Year Ended November 30,
Nine Months Ended August 31,
(in millions)
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
Results of Operations Data:
Revenues
Passenger ticket
$ 12,944 $ 13,930 $ 14,104 $ 10,934 $ 3,680
Onboard and other(1)(2)
4,566 4,951 6,721 5,110 1,881
17,510 18,881 20,825 16,043 5,561
Operating Costs and Expenses
Commissions, transportation and other
2,359 2,590 2,720 2,125 1,098
Onboard and other(1)
587 638 2,101 1,620 593
Payroll and related
2,107 2,190 2,249 1,671 1,563
Fuel
1,244 1,619 1,562 1,204 718
Food
1,031 1,066 1,083 821 404
Ship and other impairments
24 1,829
Other operating(2)
3,137 2,987 3,193 2,367 1,349
10,501 11,089 12,909 9,833 7,556
Selling and administrative
2,265 2,450 2,480 1,813 1,435
Depreciation and amortization
1,846 2,017 2,160 1,607 1,698
Goodwill and trademark impairment
89 2,096
14,701 15,556 17,549 13,252 12,784
Operating Income (Loss)
2,809 3,325 3,276 2,791 (7,223)
Nonoperating Income (Expense):
Interest income
9 14 23 16 15
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest
(198) (194) (206) (157) (547)
Gains on fuel derivatives, net(3)
35 59
Other income (expense), net
11 3 (32) (27) (260)
(143) (118) (215) (168) (793)
Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes
2,666 3,207 3,060 2,624 (8,016)
Income Tax Expense, Net
(60) (54) (71) (56) 2
Net Income (Loss)
$ 2,606 $ 3,152 $ 2,990 $ 2,567 $ (8,014)
Other Financial Data:
Adjusted net income(4)
$ 2,770 $ 3,029 $ 3,041 $ 2,614 $ (3,930)
Adjusted EBITDA(4)
$ 4,563 $ 5,280 $ 5,455 $ 4,418 $ (1,702)
 
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As of November 30,
As of August 31,
2017
2018
2019
2020
2020
(in millions)
Actual
Actual
Actual
Actual
As-adjusted(5)
Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 395 $ 982 $ 518 $ 8,176 $ 10,676
Total current assets
1,596 2,225 2,059 9,268 11,768
Total non-current assets
39,182 40,176 42,999 41,550 43,050
Total assets
$ 40,778 $ 42,401 $ 45,058 $ 50,818 $ 54,818
Total current liabilities
$ 8,800 $ 9,204 $ 9,127 $ 10,184 $ 10,287
Total long-term liabilities
7,762 8,754 10,566 21,131 22,528
Total Liabilities
$ 16,562 $ 17,958 $ 19,693       $ 31,315 $ 32,815
(1)
Includes the effect of the adoption of new accounting guidance of $1.4 billion for the year ended November 30, 2019.
(2)
For the nine months ended August 31, 2019 and 2020, we reclassified $200 million and $299 million from tour and other revenues to onboard and other revenues as well as $109 million and $198 million from tour and other costs and expenses to other operating cost and expenses in order to conform to the current year presentation. In addition, in order to confirm to the current year presentation, in the table above, (i) onboard and other revenues for the years ended November 30, 2017, 2018 and 2019 include tour and other revenues of $236 million, $272 million and $390 million, respectively and (ii) other operating costs and expenses for the years ended November 30, 2017, 2018 and 2019 include tour and other costs and expenses of $163 million, $180 million and $268 million, respectively.
(3)
During the year ended November 30, 2018, our gains on fuel derivatives, net include net unrealized gains of $94 million and realized (losses) of $(35) million.
(4)
Adjusted net income is a non-GAAP measure, and we believe that the presentation of adjusted net income provides additional information to holders because gains and losses on ship sales, impairment charges, restructuring costs and other gains and expenses are not part of our core operating business and are not an indication of our future earnings performance. Therefore, we believe it is more meaningful for these items to be excluded from our net income (loss) and, accordingly, we present adjusted net income excluding these items.
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure, and we believe that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA provides additional information to investors about our operating profitability adjusted for certain non-cash items and other gains and expenses that we believe are not part of our core operating business and are not an indication of our future earnings performance. Further, we believe that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA provides additional information to investors about our ability to operate our business in compliance with the restrictions set forth in our debt agreements. We define Adjusted EBITDA as adjusted net income or loss adjusted for (i) interest, (ii) taxes, (iii) depreciation and amortization and (iv) other exceptional items. There are material limitations to using Adjusted EBITDA. Adjusted EBITDA does not take into account certain significant items that directly affect our net income or loss. These limitations are best addressed by considering the economic effects of the excluded items independently, and by considering Adjusted EBITDA in conjunction with net income as calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
 
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The table below reconciles Adjusted net income (loss) and Adjusted EBITDA to net (loss) income for the periods presented.
Year Ended November 30,
Nine Months Ended
August 31,
(in millions)
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
Net Income (Loss)
$ 2,606 $ 3,152 $ 2,990 $ 2,567 $ (8,014)
Unrealized (gains) losses on fuel derivatives, net
(227) (94)
(Gains) losses on ship sales and impairments
387 (38) (6) 3,819
Restructuring expenses
3 1 10 42
Other
8 47 47 223
Adjusted net income (loss)
$ 2,770 $ 3,029 $ 3,041 $ 2,614 $ (3,930)
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest
198 194 206 157 547
Interest income
(9) (14) (23) (16) (15)
Income tax expense, net
60 54 71 56 (2)
Depreciation and amortization
1,846 2,017 2,160 1,607 1,698
Other
(302)
Adjusted EBITDA
$ 4,563 $ 5,280 $ 5,455 $ 4,418 $ (1,702)
(5)
Reflects (x) the consummation of the sale of the common stock offered hereby, assuming the maximum aggregate offering price is sold, (y) the October ATM Offering pursuant to which 67.1 million shares of our common stock were sold for $1.0 billion in gross proceeds, after deducting commissions but before deducting offering expenses payable by us, and (z) $1.5 billion of indebtedness incurred under export credit facilities in connection with the deliveries of two ships in September 2020 and October 2020.
 
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Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock offered involves a number of risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth below, the risk factors set forth under “Risk Factors” in the accompanying prospectus and the risk factors that are incorporated into this prospectus supplement by reference to the section entitled “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our Annual Report and our Quarterly Reports. See “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus. Some statements are “forward-looking statements.” For a discussion of those statements and of other factors for investors to consider, see “Forward-Looking Statements” in this prospectus supplement. Furthermore, to the extent COVID-19 adversely affects our business, operations, financial condition and operating results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” included in our Form 10-K.
Risks Related to COVID-19 and Liquidity/Debt
COVID-19 has had, and is expected to continue to have, a significant impact on our financial condition and operations, which impacts our ability to obtain acceptable financing to fund resulting reductions in cash from operations. The current, and uncertain future, impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, including its effect on the ability or desire of people to travel (including on cruises), is expected to continue to impact our results, operations, outlooks, plans, goals, reputation, litigation, cash flows, liquidity, and stock price.
The COVID-19 global pandemic is having material negative impacts on all aspects of our business. We implemented a pause of our guest cruise operations in mid-March 2020 across all brands. Although we began the resumption of limited guest operations in September 2020 with cruises by Costa and in October 2020 with cruises by AIDA, such partial resumption by AIDA has been disrupted through November 30, 2020, and the pause with respect to the other brands and ships may be prolonged. In addition, we have been, and will continue to be negatively impacted by related developments, including heightened governmental regulations, travel bans and travel advisories and restrictions and recommendations by the CDC and other governmental authorities.
We incurred significant costs as we paused our guest cruise operations, provided air transportation to return our passengers to their home destinations, repatriated shipboard team members and assisted some of our crew that were unable to return home, with food and housing. We will continue to incur COVID-19 related costs as we implement additional hygiene-related protocols to our ships, as well as prepare for the continued resumption of guest operations. In addition, the industry may be subject to enhanced health and hygiene requirements in attempts to counteract future outbreaks, which requirements may be costly and take a significant amount of time to implement across our global cruise operations. In October 2020, CDC announced a framework for a phased resumption of cruise ship passenger operations in U.S. waters. The framework consists of several initial requirements that cruise ship operators such as us would need to follow prior to resuming guest operations, including those relating to testing and additional safeguards for crew members and the development of laboratory capacity needed to test future passengers. We are in the process of evaluating the CDC’s framework and believe there are a significant number of requirements that must be evaluated in the context of our plans to resume operations. Further, the framework is subject to additional technical instructions and orders from the CDC (including in connection with subsequent phases for resumption, which are expected to include simulated voyages and certification requirements) that are currently uncertain and will require further evaluation as we seek to resume operations. Implementing these initial and subsequent requirements may be costly and take time before the resumption of our guest operations.
Due to the outbreak of COVID-19 on some of our ships, and the resulting illness and loss of life in certain instances, we have been the subject of negative publicity, which could have a long term impact on the appeal of our brands, which would diminish demand for vacations on our vessels. We cannot predict how long the negative impact of media attention on our brands will last, or the level of investment that will be required to address the concerns of potential travelers through marketing and pricing actions.
We have received, and may continue to receive, lawsuits, other governmental investigations and other actions stemming from COVID-19. We cannot predict the quantum or outcome of any such proceedings, some of which could result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties in the future, and the impact that
 
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they will have on our financial results, but any such impact may be material. We also remain subject to extensive, complex, and closely monitored obligations under the court-ordered environmental compliance plan supervised by the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, as a result of the previously disclosed settlement agreement relating to the violation of probation conditions for a plea agreement entered into by Princess Cruises and the U.S. Department of Justice in 2016. We remain fully committed to satisfying those obligations. COVID-19 presents enormous challenges for the company, which could result in material adverse impacts.
We have insurance coverage for certain liabilities, costs and expenses related to COVID-19 through our participation in Protection and Indemnity (“P&I”) clubs, including coverage for direct and incremental costs including, but not limited to, certain quarantine expenses and for certain liabilities to passengers and crew. P&I clubs are mutual indemnity associations owned by members. There is a $10 million deductible per occurrence (meaning per outbreak on a particular ship). We cannot assure you that we will receive insurance proceeds that will compensate us fully for our liabilities, costs and expenses that exceed the $10 million deductible under these policies. We have no insurance coverage for loss of revenues or earnings from our ships or other operations.
In connection with our capacity optimization strategy, we have accelerated the removal of ships from our fleet in 2020 which were previously expected to be sold over the ensuing years. We have sold, expect to sell or have agreements for the disposal of various vessels. Some of these agreements for the disposal of vessels are for recycling. When we choose to dispose of a ship, there can be no assurance that there will be a viable buyer to purchase it at a price that exceeds our net book value, which could result in ship impairment charges and losses on ship disposals.
The effects of COVID-19 on the operations of shipyards where our ships are under construction will result in a delay in ship deliveries.
We cannot predict the timing of our complete return to service and when various ports will reopen to our ships. If we are delayed in recommencing guest cruise operations or there is a future pause in the resumption of limited guest operations, it could further negatively impact our liquidity. As our business is seasonal, the impact of a delay or future pause in the resumption of guest cruise operations will be heightened if such delay or pause occurs during the Northern Hemisphere summer months. Moreover, even as travel advisories and restrictions are lifted, demand for cruises may remain weak for a significant length of time and we cannot predict if and when each brand will return to pre-outbreak demand or fare pricing. In particular, our bookings may be negatively impacted by the adverse changes in the perceived or actual economic climate, including higher unemployment rates, declines in income levels and loss of personal wealth resulting from the impact of COVID-19. In addition, we cannot predict the impact COVID-19 will have on our partners, such as travel agencies, suppliers and other vendors, counterparties and joint ventures. We may be adversely impacted as a result of the adverse impact our partners, counterparties and joint ventures suffer.
We have never previously experienced a complete cessation of our guest cruise operations, and as a consequence, our ability to be predictive regarding the impact of such a cessation on our brands and future prospects is uncertain. In particular, we cannot predict the impact on our financial performance and cash flows (including as required for cash refunds of deposits) as a result of the current pause in our guest cruise operations, which may be prolonged, and the public’s concern regarding the health and safety of travel, especially by cruise ship, and related decreases in demand for travel and cruising. Moreover, our ability to attract and retain guests and our ability to hire and the amounts we must pay our crew depends, in part, upon the perception and reputation of our company and our brands and the public’s concerns regarding the health and safety of travel generally, as well as regarding the cruising industry and our ships specifically. As a result, we expect a net loss on both a U.S. GAAP and adjusted basis for the quarter and year ending November 30, 2020. For the nine months ended August 31, 2020, we incurred a net loss of $8.0 billion.
As a result of all of the foregoing, we have raised, and expect to be required to further raise, significant additional capital, including significant additional equity capital. Our access to and cost of financing depend on, among other things, global economic conditions, conditions in the global financing markets, the availability of sufficient amounts of financing, our prospects and our credit ratings. As a result of COVID-19’s effects on our liquidity, since March 2020, Moody’s has twice downgraded our credit ratings to be
 
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below investment grade. Similarly, following a downgrade of our credit ratings to be below investment grade, S&P Global has further downgraded our credit ratings. Our current short-term commercial paper credit rating prevents us from issuing additional commercial paper.
If we are delayed in recommencing guest cruise operations or there is a future pause in the resumption of limited guest operations, our credit ratings were to be further downgraded, or general market conditions were to ascribe higher risk to our rating levels, our industry, or us, our access to capital and the cost of any debt or equity financing will be further negatively impacted. In addition, the terms of future debt agreements could include more restrictive covenants, or require incremental collateral, which may further restrict our business operations or be unavailable due to our covenant restrictions then in effect. There is no guarantee that debt or equity financings will be available in the future to fund our obligations, or that they will be available on terms consistent with our expectations.
In addition, the COVID-19 outbreak has significantly increased economic and demand uncertainty. The current outbreak and continued spread of COVID-19 could cause a global recession, which would have a further adverse impact on our financial condition and operations. In past recessions, demand for our cruise vacations has been significantly negatively impacted which has resulted in lower occupancy rates and adverse pricing, with a corresponding increase in the use of credits and other means to attract travelers. Current economic forecasts for significant increases in unemployment in the U.S. and other regions due to the adoption of physical distancing and other policies to slow the spread of the virus is likely to have a negative impact on booking demand for our guest cruise operations, and these impacts could exist for an extensive period of time.
The extent of the effects of the outbreak on our business and the cruising industry at large is highly uncertain and will ultimately depend on future developments, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of the outbreak, the length of time it takes for demand and pricing to return and normal economic and operating conditions to resume. To the extent COVID-19 adversely affects our business, operations, financial condition and operating results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” included in our Form 10-K.
Our substantial debt could adversely affect our financial health and operating flexibility.
We have a substantial amount of debt and significant debt service obligations. As of August 31, 2020, we had total gross debt of $25.5 billion. Our substantial debt could have important negative consequences for us. Our substantial debt could:

require us to dedicate a large portion of our cash flow from operations to service debt and fund repayments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;

increase our vulnerability to adverse general economic or industry conditions;

limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or the industry in which we operate;

place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt;

make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, the economy or the industry in which we operate;

limit our ability to raise additional debt or equity capital in the future to satisfy our requirements relating to working capital, capital expenditures, development projects, strategic initiatives or other purposes;

restrict us from making strategic acquisitions, introducing new technologies or exploiting business opportunities;

make it difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt; and

expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings are (and may be in the future) at a variable rate of interest.
 
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Despite our leverage, we may incur more debt, which could adversely affect our business and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations with respect to our debt.
We may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future. Although the instruments governing our existing indebtedness contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional debt, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and under certain circumstances, the amount of debt that could be incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial and a portion of such debt could be secured. The instruments governing our existing indebtedness do not prevent us from incurring liabilities that do not constitute “Indebtedness” as defined therein. If new debt is added to our existing debt levels, our business could be adversely affected which may prevent us from fulfilling our obligations with respect to our debt.
We are subject to restrictive debt covenants that may limit our ability to finance future operations and capital needs and to pursue business opportunities and activities. In addition, if we fail to comply with any of these restrictions, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company.
Certain of our debt instruments limit our flexibility in operating our business. For example, some of our debt instruments limit the ability of Carnival Corporation, Carnival plc and certain of their respective subsidiaries to, among other things:

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;

pay dividends or distributions on, or redeem or repurchase capital stock and make other restricted payments;

make certain investments;

consummate certain asset sales;

engage in certain transactions with affiliates;

grant or assume certain liens; and

consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets.
All of these limitations are subject to significant exceptions and qualifications. Despite these exceptions and qualifications, we cannot assure you that the operating and financial restrictions and covenants in certain of our debt instruments will not adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs or engage in other business activities that may be in our interest. Any future indebtedness may include similar or other restrictive terms. In addition, many of our debt agreements contain one or more financial covenants that require us to maintain minimum debt service coverage, maintain minimum shareholders equity and/or limit our debt to capital ratio. Our ability to comply with our debt covenants, including the financial maintenance covenants described above, and restrictions may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions, such as the continued resumption of our guest cruise operations and our ability to issue additional equity. If we breach any of these covenants or restrictions, we could be in default under the terms of certain of our debt facilities and the relevant lenders could elect to declare the debt, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other fees, if any, immediately due and payable and proceed against any collateral, if any, securing that debt. If the debt under certain of our debt instruments that we enter into were to be accelerated, our assets may be insufficient to repay in full our debt. Borrowings under other debt instruments that contain cross-default provisions also may be accelerated or become payable on demand. In these circumstances, our assets may not be sufficient to repay in full our indebtedness then outstanding.
We require a significant amount of cash to service our debt and sustain our operations. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control, and we may not be able to generate cash required to service our debt.
Our ability to meet our debt service obligations or refinance our debt depends on our future operating and financial performance and ability to generate cash. This will be affected by our ability to successfully implement our business strategy, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control, such as the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. If we cannot generate
 
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sufficient cash to meet our debt service obligations or fund our other business needs, we may, among other things, need to refinance all or a portion of our debt, obtain additional financing, delay planned capital expenditures or sell assets. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate sufficient cash through any of the foregoing. If we are not able to refinance any of our debt, obtain additional financing or sell assets on commercially reasonable terms or at all, we may not be able to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under certain of our facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on certain of our variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed remains the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease.
In addition, in July 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), announced that it will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. It is unclear whether or not, at that time, a satisfactory replacement rate will be developed or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of, among other entities, large U.S. financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new index that measures the cost of borrowing cash overnight, backed by U.S. Treasury securities (“SOFR”). SOFR is observed and backward-looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. Whether or not SOFR or any other potential alternative reference rate attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement rate remains in question. The consequences of these developments with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted but may result in the level of interest payments on the portion of our indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates to be affected, which may adversely impact the amount of our interest payments under such debt.
We have entered into, and in the future we will continue to enter into, interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed-rate interest payments to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all of our variable rate indebtedness, and any such swaps may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk, may prove disadvantageous, or may create additional risks.
As a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, we may be out of compliance with a maintenance covenant in certain of our debt facilities, for which we have waivers for the period through August 31, 2021 with the next testing date of November 30, 2021.
Under the terms of certain of our debt facilities, we are required to maintain minimum debt service coverage (EBITDA to consolidated net interest charges for the most recently ended four fiscal quarters) of not less than 3.0 to 1.0 at the end of each fiscal quarter. As of October 31, 2020, we have entered into supplemental agreements or side letters to amend our agreements with respect to this Financial Covenant to:

Waive compliance for all of our funded export credit facilities through August 31, 2021, November 30, 2021 or December 31, 2021, as applicable, with aggregate indebtedness of $5.8 billion as of August 31, 2020. We will be required to comply beginning with testing dates of November 30, 2021, February 28, 2022 and February 28, 2022, respectively. We have preliminary agreements to extend the waiver for the three facilities with a waiver through August 31, 2021, which have aggregate indebtedness of $1.3 billion, through November 30, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022).

Waive compliance through November 30, 2021 for certain of our bank loans with aggregate indebtedness of $2.1 billion as of August 31, 2020. We will be required to comply beginning with the next testing date of February 28, 2022.

Waive compliance for the remaining applicable bank loans with aggregate indebtedness of $0.5 billion as of August 31, 2020, through their respective maturity dates.
 
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At August 31, 2020, we were in compliance with the applicable debt covenants.
We may not be in compliance with the Financial Covenant following August 31, 2021 with the next testing date of November 30, 2021 or in future periods for certain agreements because of the pause and limited resumption of our guest operations. If we anticipate not being in compliance, we would again seek waivers from the lenders under the applicable facilities prior to any covenant breach.
With respect to our unfunded export credit facilities (which have an aggregate principal amount of $9.4 billion as of August 31, 2020), as of October 31, 2020, we have obtained Financial Covenant waivers through August 31, 2021 (with the next testing date of November 30, 2021) for aggregate principal amount of $2.7 billion, through November 30, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022) for aggregate principal of $1.2 billion (which included Enchanted Princess, funded upon delivery in September 2020) and through December 31, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022) for aggregate principal amount of $3.7 billion (which included Iona, funded upon delivery in October 2020). For the remaining three unfunded export credit facilities with an aggregate principal amount of $1.8 billion, we are engaged in discussions with the counterparties to waive the Financial Covenant through March 31, 2021 (with the next testing date of May 31, 2021). Simultaneously with obtaining the initial waivers for these three unfunded export credit facilities, it is anticipated that extension of waivers for these facilities through November 30, 2021 (with the next testing date of February 28, 2022) will be granted.
Although unlikely, if the covenant waiver is not obtained for any of the three unfunded facilities for which we have not yet obtained a waiver, the relevant lenders under the facilities could terminate the commitment under those facilities because we are not in compliance with the Financial Covenant for the fiscal quarter ended on August 31, 2020.
Covenant waivers have led and may continue to lead to increased costs, increased interest rates, additional restrictive covenants and other available lender protections that would be applicable to us under these debt facilities, and such increased costs, restrictions and modifications may vary among debt facilities. Our ability to provide additional lender protections under these facilities, including the granting of security interests in collateral, will be limited by the restrictions in our indebtedness. There can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain waivers in a timely manner, on acceptable terms or at all. If we were not able to obtain a covenant waiver under any one or more of these debt facilities, we would be in default of such agreements, which could result in cross defaults to our other debt agreements. As a consequence, we would need to refinance or repay the applicable debt facility or facilities, and would be required to raise additional debt or equity capital, or divest assets, to refinance or repay such facility or facilities. If we were to be unable to obtain a covenant waiver under any one or more of these debt facilities, there can be no assurance that we would be able to raise sufficient debt or equity capital, or divest assets, to refinance or repay such facility or facilities.
With respect to each of these debt facilities, if we were not to obtain a waiver or refinance or repay such debt facilities, it would lead to an event of default under such facilities, which could lead to an acceleration of the indebtedness under such debt facilities. In turn, this would lead to an event of default and potential acceleration of amounts due under all of our outstanding debt and derivative contract payables. As a result, the failure to obtain the covenant waivers described above would have a material adverse effect.
The covenants in certain of our debt facilities may require us to secure those facilities in the future.
Certain of our debt facilities contain provisions which may require that we provide a security interest in certain assets. In certain of our debt facilities, there is a requirement that if the credit rating of our senior indebtedness should fall below investment grade (which occurred on June 24, 2020) and at such time we have granted liens or security interests in respect of indebtedness in an amount exceeding 25% of our total assets (excluding for these purposes the value of any intangible assets) as shown in our most recent consolidated balance sheet, then we will be required to provide a first-priority security interest in certain designated assets. In addition, under our export credit facilities, there is a requirement that if a security interest or lien is granted in respect of a vessel to secure borrowed money under certain other debt facilities, then a first-priority security interest will be required to be provided over certain designated vessels.
 
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If the events described above were to occur, we may be unable to comply with this requirement and expect to seek waivers from the lenders under the relevant facilities. Any such waiver may lead to increased costs, increased interest rates, additional restrictive covenants and other available lender protections that would be applicable to us under these debt facilities, and such increased costs, restrictions and modifications may vary among debt facilities. Our ability to give additional lender protections under these facilities, including the granting of security interests in collateral, will be limited by the restrictions in our indebtedness and security interest we have already granted. If we were not able to obtain a waiver, the occurrence of such events may result in an event of default under these facilities and other debt facilities that contain cross default provisions that would be triggered.
Risks Related to this Offering
Our management will have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the common stock offered hereby and may not use them effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from the sale of the common stock offered hereby and our shareholders will not have the opportunity as part of their investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. You may not agree with our decisions, and our use of the net proceeds may not yield any return on your investment. Our failure to apply the net proceeds from the sale of the common stock offered hereby effectively could compromise our business strategy and we might not be able to yield a significant return, if any, on our investment of these net proceeds. You will not have the opportunity to influence our decisions on how to use our net proceeds from the sale of the common stock offered hereby.
Raising additional funds by issuing equity securities may cause additional dilution and raising additional funds through debt financings may involve restrictive covenants, which may limit our ability to take specific actions.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on our business, we expect that significant additional capital (including through sales or other issuances of shares of our common stock) will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations. We expect to finance our immediate liquidity needs through a combination of debt financings and equity financings. To the extent that we raise substantial additional capital by issuing equity securities, or the Convertible Notes are converted into shares of our common stock (or shares of our common stock are issued in connection with the purchase or exchange of the Convertible Notes), you may experience substantial dilution. A substantial portion of our debt and any agreements for future debt or preferred equity financings, if available, may involve, covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt.
Future sales of our common stock by us or our existing shareholders, or the perception in the public markets that these sales may occur, may depress our share price.
Our Board of Directors has the authority, without action or vote of the shareholders, to issue any or all authorized but unissued shares of our common stock, including securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock and authorized but unissued shares under our equity compensation plans or otherwise. Since April 2020, we have issued, and expect in the future to issue, a substantial amount of equity securities through public or private offerings, in order to raise additional capital. For example, in April 2020, we completed (i) a public offering of 71,875,000 shares of Carnival Corporation’s common stock at a price per share of $8.00, resulting in net proceeds of $556 million and (ii) a private offering of $2.0 billion aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes. In August 2020, we completed a registered direct offering of 99.2 million shares of Carnival Corporation’s common stock at a price per share of $14.02, with the proceeds being used to repurchase $886 million principal amount of the Convertible Notes. Finally, on October 30, 2020, we completed the October ATM Offering and sold 67.1 million shares of Carnival Corporation’s common stock in the October ATM Offering at an average price of $14.78 raising aggregate gross proceeds of $1 billion. Any such issuance will dilute the percentage ownership of shareholders and may dilute the per share projected earnings (if any) or book value of our common stock. Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market after this offering or other issuances of shares of our common stock, or the perception that these sales or issuances could occur, could cause the market
 
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price of our common stock to decline and may make it more difficult for you to sell your shares at a time and price that you deem appropriate.
The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at-the-market” offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares of our common stock in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares of common stock sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares of common stock as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
The actual number of shares of common stock we will issue under the equity distribution agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.
Subject to certain limitations in the equity distribution agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a sales notice to the sales agents at any time throughout the term of the equity distribution agreement. The number of shares of common stock that are sold by the sales agents after delivering a sales notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of the shares of common stock during the sales period, limits we set with the sales agents and demand for our shares of common stock during the sales period. Because the price per share of each share of common stock sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares of common stock that will be ultimately issued. Our stock price has experienced significant volatility over the course of the last six months, from a low of $11.00 on May 14, 2020 to a high of $25.28 on June 8, 2020. See “— The price of our common stock may be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our common stock in this offering.”
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they publish negative, or inaccurate, evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock may be impacted, in part, by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. There can be no assurance that analysts will cover us, continue to cover us or provide favorable coverage. If one or more analysts downgrade our stock or change their opinion of our stock, our share price may decline. In addition, if one or more analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
We do not expect to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
You should not rely on an investment in our common stock to provide dividend income. Because of our liquidity management and the dividend restrictions in the Secured Term Loan Facility Agreement and the indentures governing the 2023 First Lien Notes and the Second Lien Notes, we have suspended the payment of dividends on the common stock of Carnival Corporation or the ordinary shares of Carnival plc, and we do not anticipate that we will pay any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Instead, we plan to retain any earnings to maintain our operations. In addition to the Secured Term Loan Facility Agreement and the indentures governing the 2023 First Lien Notes and the Second Lien Notes, any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any return on their investment. As a result, investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.
Ownership and transfer restrictions in our charter may impair the ability of purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering to hold or transfer their shares.
In general, under Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code, certain non-U.S. corporations (such as our North American cruise ship businesses) are not subject to U.S. federal income tax or branch profits tax on
 
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U.S. source income derived from, or incidental to, the international operation of a ship or ships. Applicable U.S. Treasury regulations provide in general that a foreign corporation will qualify for the benefits of Section 883 if, in relevant part, (i) the foreign country in which the foreign corporation is organized grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the U.S. in respect of each category of shipping income for which an exemption is being claimed under Section 883 and (ii) the foreign corporation meets a defined publicly-traded corporation stock ownership test. In order to assist us in continuing to qualify as a publicly traded corporation under the Internal Revenue Code regulations, our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. Our charter generally prohibits, among other prohibitions, any stockholder from beneficially or constructively owning more than 4.9% of our common stock, whether measured by vote, value or number, subject to certain exceptions. In addition, our charter contains various other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. These ownership and transfer restrictions may impair the ability of purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering to hold or transfer their shares.
The price of our common stock may be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our common stock in this offering.
Our stock price is likely to be volatile. Global stock markets in general have recently experienced extreme volatility primarily as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your shares of common stock purchased in this offering at or above the price you paid for such shares. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including, without limitation:

the severity and duration of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, including the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic on us and the travel and cruise industries more broadly;

changes in the prices or availability of fuel;

our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

our earnings or recommendations by research analysts who track our common stock or the stock of other cruise companies;

our ability to access the credit markets for sufficient amounts of capital and on terms that are favorable or consistent with our expectations;

a global economic slowdown that could affect our financial results and operations and the economic strength of our customers and suppliers; and

the other factors described herein and under the caption “Risk Factors” in the Annual Report and the Quarterly Reports and under the caption “Forward-Looking Statements” in this prospectus supplement.
In the past, following periods of extreme volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against that company. Any lawsuit to which we are a party, with or without merit, may result in an unfavorable judgment. We also may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any such negative outcome could result in payments of substantial damages or fines, damage to our reputation or adverse changes to our offerings or business practices. Such litigation may also cause us to incur other substantial costs to defend such claims and divert management’s attention and resources.
We cannot assure you that a judgment of a U.S. court for liabilities under U.S. securities laws would be enforceable in Panama, or that an original action can be brought in Panama against us for liabilities under U.S. securities laws, and investors in the common stock may find it difficult or impossible to enforce service of process and enforcement of judgments against us and our officers and directors.
We are a corporation (sociedad anónima) organized and existing under the laws of Panama. Should any directors, officers, controlling persons or the experts named herein reside outside of the United States, it may
 
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not be possible for investors in our securities to effect service of process within the United States upon such persons or to enforce judgments of U.S. courts against them or our company, including in any action based on civil liabilities under the U.S. federal securities laws. There is uncertainty as to the enforceability against such persons in Panama, whether in original actions or in actions to enforce judgments of U.S. courts, of liabilities based solely on the U.S. federal securities laws or state laws. There is no existing treaty between the U.S. and Panama for the reciprocal enforcement of foreign judgments. It is not clear whether a foreign court would accept jurisdiction and impose civil liability if proceedings were commenced in a foreign jurisdiction predicated solely upon U.S. federal securities laws.
Protections afforded to minority shareholders in Panama are different from and more limited than those in the United States.
Panama’s laws generally afford less protection to the interests of minority shareholders than those of minority shareholders of a corporation incorporated under the United States and other jurisdictions. The legal framework with respect to shareholder disputes is less developed under Panamanian law than under U.S. law and there are different procedural requirements for bringing shareholder lawsuits, including shareholder derivative suits. In addition, Panamanian law does not impose any type of duties to controlling or majority shareholders in regards to minority shareholders’ interests, and provides no protective mechanisms for minority shareholders in the event of a change in control. As a result, it may be more difficult for our minority shareholders to enforce their rights against us or our directors or other shareholders than it would be for shareholders of a U.S. company.
 
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Use of Proceeds
We may offer and sell from time to time shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $1,500,000,000. Because there is no minimum offering amount required, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.
The net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock offered hereby, after commissions and other offering expenses, will be used for general corporate purposes.
We do not intend to place, invest or economically utilize the proceeds of this offering of common stock in Panama.
 
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Capitalization
The following table sets forth the cash and cash equivalents position and capitalization of Carnival Corporation & plc as of August 31, 2020:

on an actual basis; and

on an as-adjusted basis to give effect to (x)  the sale of shares of our common stock offered hereby, assuming the maximum aggregate offering price is sold (without reflecting expenses but including the estimated aggregate commission in connection with this offering), (y) the October ATM Offering pursuant to which 67.1 million shares of our common stock were sold for $1.0 billion in gross proceeds, after deducting commissions but before deducting offering expenses payable by us, and (z) $1.5 billion of indebtedness incurred under export credit facilities in connection with the deliveries of two ships in September 2020 and October 2020.
Certain amounts have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, amounts shown as totals may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the amounts that precede them. You should read this information in conjunction with the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our historical financial statements and related notes in the Annual Report and the Quarterly Reports, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.
As of August 31, 2020
Actual
As Adjusted
(all share and dollar amounts,
except par value, in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 8,176 $ 10,676
Short-term borrowings:
Commercial Paper
$ 368 $ 368
Other
2 2
Revolving Facility(a)
3,005 3,005
Current portion of long-term debt(b)(c)
2,621 2,724
Total short-term debt
$ 5,995 $ 6,098
Long-term borrowings:
Unsecured:
Export credit facilities
$ 4,947 $ 6,345
Loans
2,440 2,440
Unsecured notes(c)
1,694 1,694
Convertible Notes(d)
1,127 1,127
Unsecured long-term debt
10,208 11,606
Secured:
First Lien Notes(e)
$ 4,192 $ 4,192
Secured Term Loan Facility(f)
2,784 2,784
Long-term portion of EIB Facility(b)
177 177
Second Lien Notes(g)
2,181 2,181
Secured long-term debt
$ 9,334 $ 9,334
Total long-term borrowings (excluding unamortized debt issuance costs and discounts)
$ 19,541 $ 20,939
Total borrowings (excluding unamortized debt issuance costs and discounts)
$ 25,537 $ 27,037
Common Stock of Carnival Corporation, $0.01 par value; 1,960 shares authorized; 830 shares issued on an actual basis and 975 shares on an as adjusted basis(h)
$ 8 $ 10
 
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As of August 31, 2020
Actual
As Adjusted
(all share and dollar amounts,
except par value, in millions)
Ordinary shares of Carnival plc, $1.66 par value; 217 shares issued
361 361
Additional paid-in capital
10,680 $ 13,179
Retained earnings
18,297 $ 18,297
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(1,439) (1,439)
Treasury stock, 130 shares of Carnival Corporation and 60 shares of Carnival plc, at cost
(8,404) (8,404)
Total shareholders’ equity
$ 19,503 $ 22,003
Total capitalization
$ 45,040 $ 49,040
(a)
Reflects borrowings under the Revolving Facility, which were drawn in March 2020 for an initial term of six months. The maturities for these borrowings were extended in September 2020 for an additional six months through March 2021. We may re-borrow such amounts subject to satisfaction of the conditions in the Revolving Facility Agreement.
(b)
Includes $44 million short-term portion, and $177 million long-term portion, outstanding under the EIB Facility. Our subsidiary, Costa Crociere S.p.A., is party to a New Vessels Finance Contract, dated June 5, 2009, between Costa Crociere S.p.A., as borrower, and the European Investment Bank, as lender (referred to herein as the “EIB Facility”). As of August 31, 2020, €185 million principal amount remained outstanding under the EIB Facility.
(c)
Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc, as applicable, are the issuers/guarantors, as applicable, of multiple series of unsecured notes (collectively, the “Unsecured Notes”) with an aggregate principal amount outstanding of $2.8 billion as of August 31, 2020.
(d)
The Convertible Notes are convertible into common stock of Carnival Corporation. In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 470-20 (“ASC 470-20”), a convertible debt instrument that may be settled entirely or partially in cash is required to be separated into a liability and equity component, such that interest expense reflects the issuer’s nonconvertible debt interest rate. Upon issuance, a debt discount was recognized as a decrease in debt and an increase in additional paid-in capital. The debt component will accrete up to the principal amount over the expected term of the debt. ASC 470-20 does not give effect to the actual amount that we are required to repay, and the amount shown in the table above for the Convertible Notes is the aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes and does not reflect the debt discount.
(e)
The First Lien Notes consist of the 2023 First Lien Notes and the 2027 First Lien Notes.
(f)
The aggregate principal amount of the euro tranche of the Secured Term Loan Facility has been converted into U.S. dollars at an exchange rate of $1.1903 per €1.00, which was the rate on August 31, 2020.
(g)
The Second Lien Notes consist of the 2026 Second Lien Notes and the 2027 Second Lien Notes. The aggregate principal amount of the euro tranche of the 2026 Second Lien Notes has been converted into U.S. dollars at an exchange rate of $1.1903 per €1.00, which was the rate on August 31, 2020.
 
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(h)
On an as adjusted basis, reflects the 67.1 million shares of our common stock pursuant to the October ATM Offering completed on October 30, 2020, and assumes the number of shares of our common stock issued pursuant to this prospectus supplement, calculated using the maximum aggregate offering price of $1,500,000,000 and the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE on November 9, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering and, in any event, may not exceed the number of authorized and available shares under our articles of incorporation. The actual and as adjusted share information in the table excludes:

112.7 million shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Notes issued and outstanding as of August 31, 2020;

7.5 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units outstanding as of August 31, 2020 (assuming the satisfaction of performance requirements and exclusive of dividend equivalent shares at settlement, as applicable);

1.7 million shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under the Carnival Corporation Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as of August 31, 2020; and

6.4 million shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under the Carnival Corporation 2020 Stock Plan, as of August 31, 2020.
 
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Material U.S. Federal Income Tax, UK and Panamanian Tax Consequences
United States
The following is a general summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of the ownership, conversion and disposition of shares of our common stock and paired trust shares (together, the “Shares”), to a U.S. Holder and to a Non-U.S. Holder, each as defined below. This discussion is based on the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder (“Treasury Regulations”), administrative pronouncements or practices and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof. Future legislative, judicial or administrative modifications, revocations or interpretations, which may or may not be retroactive, may result in U.S. federal income tax consequences significantly different from those discussed herein. This discussion is not binding on the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”). No ruling has been or will be sought or obtained from the IRS with respect to any of the U.S. federal income tax consequences discussed herein. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge any of the conclusions discussed herein or that a U.S. court will not sustain such a challenge.
As used in this summary, (A) a “Holder” is any beneficial owner of Shares; (B) a “U.S. Holder” is any Holder that is (i) a citizen or an individual resident of the United States for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (ii) a corporation (or other entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized under the laws of the United States or any of its political subdivisions, including any state thereof and the District of Columbia, (iii) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source, or (iv) a trust which (a) is subject to the primary jurisdiction of a court within the United States and for which one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions, or (b) has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person; and (C) a “Non-U.S. Holder” is any Holder that is an individual, corporation, estate or trust that is not described in clause (B)(i), (ii), (iii) or (iv) above. If a pass-through entity, including a partnership or other entity classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is a beneficial owner of Shares, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an owner or partner generally will depend upon the status of such owner or partner and upon the activities of the pass- through entity. Owners or partners of a pass-through entity that is a beneficial owner of Shares are urged to consult their own tax advisors as to U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of Shares.
This discussion does not address the U.S. federal alternative minimum tax, any U.S. federal estate, gift, or other non-income tax, except as expressly provided below, or any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences of the ownership or disposition of the Shares. In addition, this summary does not address the U.S. federal income tax consequences to certain categories of Holders subject to special rules, including Holders that are (i) banks, financial institutions or insurance companies, (ii) regulated investment companies or real estate investment trusts, (iii) brokers or dealers in securities or currencies or traders in securities that elect to apply a mark-to-market accounting method, (iv) tax-exempt organizations, qualified retirement plans, individual retirement accounts or other tax-deferred accounts, (v) Holders that own Shares as part of a straddle, hedge, constructive sale, conversion transaction or other integrated investment, (vi) Holders that are liable for the alternative minimum tax under the Code, (vii) entities that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and investors therein, (viii) Holders that hold Shares other than as a capital asset, within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code or (ix) U.S. expatriates. Furthermore, this summary does not address tax consequences attributable to persons being required to accelerate the recognition of any item of gross income with respect to the Shares as a result of such income being recognized on an applicable financial statement.
This discussion also does not address tax consequences to U.S. Holders whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar.
A HOLDER IS URGED TO CONSULT ITS OWN TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS TO ITS PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES AND ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES ARISING UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL, NON-U.S. OR OTHER TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.
 
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U.S. federal income taxation of the company
U.S. tax classification of the company
We are treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, U.S. Holders will not be directly subject to U.S. federal income tax on our income, but rather will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on distributions received from us and dispositions of common shares as described below.
U.S. federal income taxation of operating income: In general
In general, under Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code, certain non-U.S. corporations (such as our North American cruise ship businesses) are not subject to U.S. federal income tax or branch profits tax on U.S. source income derived from, or incidental to, the international operation of a ship or ships. Applicable U.S. Treasury regulations provide in general that a foreign corporation will qualify for the benefits of Section 883 if, in relevant part, (i) the foreign country in which the foreign corporation is organized grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the U.S. in respect of each category of shipping income for which an exemption is being claimed under Section 883 (an “equivalent exemption jurisdiction”) and (ii) the foreign corporation meets a defined publicly-traded corporation stock ownership test (the “publicly-traded test”). Subsidiaries of foreign corporations that are organized in an equivalent exemption jurisdiction and meet the publicly-traded test also benefit from Section 883. We believe that Panama is an equivalent exemption jurisdiction and that Carnival Corporation currently satisfies the publicly-traded test under the regulations. Accordingly, substantially all of Carnival Corporation’s income is exempt from U.S. federal income and branch profit taxes.
Regulations under Section 883 list certain activities that the IRS does not consider to be incidental to the international operation of ships and, therefore, the income attributable to such activities, to the extent such income is U.S. source, does not qualify for the Section 883 exemption. Among the activities identified as not incidental are income from the sale of air transportation, transfers, shore excursions and pre- and post-cruise land packages to the extent earned from sources within the U.S.
U.S. federal income taxation of U.S. holders
Subject to the discussion of the “PFIC” rules below:
Distributions
Any distributions made by us with respect to the Shares will generally constitute dividends taxable as ordinary income to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. Distributions in excess of those earnings and profits will be treated first as a nontaxable return of capital to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in our Shares (determined on a share-by-share basis), and thereafter as capital gain. Because we are not a U.S. corporation, U.S. Holders that are corporations will not be entitled to claim a dividends-received deduction with respect to any distributions they receive from us. So long as our stock is considered readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States, we expect that we will constitute a “qualified foreign corporation” and dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders should, subject to applicable limitations, qualify as “qualified dividend income” eligible for preferential rates. As noted below under “— PFIC Status,” if were found to be a PFIC (as defined below), however, we would not constitute a “qualified foreign corporation” and dividends received by non-corporate U.S. Holders would not qualify as “qualified dividend income” eligible for preferential rates. We believe that we were not a PFIC for the 2019 taxable year, and as discussed below, we believe that we should not be a PFIC for the 2020 taxable year or for the foreseeable future.
Amounts taxable as dividends generally will be treated as income from sources outside the U.S. and will, depending on a U.S. Holder’s circumstances, be “passive” or “general” category income which, in either case, is treated separately from other types of income for purposes of computing the foreign tax credit allowable to such U.S. Holder.
However, if (a) we are 50% or more owned, by vote or value, by U.S. persons and (b) at least 10% of our earnings and profits are attributable to sources within the U.S., then for foreign tax credit purposes, a
 
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portion of our dividends would be treated as derived from sources within the U.S. With respect to any dividend paid for any taxable year, the U.S. source ratio of our dividends for foreign tax credit purposes would be equal to the portion of our earnings and profits from sources within the U.S. for such taxable year, divided by the total amount of our earnings and profits for such taxable year.
Sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of shares
A U.S. Holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss upon a sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Shares in an amount equal to the difference, if any, between the amount realized by the U.S. Holder from such disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such Shares. Capital gain of a noncorporate U.S. Holder is generally taxed at a lower rate than ordinary income where the holder has a holding period greater than one year. U.S. Holder’s ability to deduct capital losses is subject to certain limitations.
Gain or loss, if any, that a U.S. Holder realizes upon a sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as having a United States source for U.S. foreign tax credit limitation purposes. Consequently, a U.S. Holder may not be able to use any foreign tax credits arising from any non-U.S. tax imposed on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Shares unless such credit can be applied (subject to applicable limitations) against tax due on other income treated as derived from foreign sources or unless an applicable treaty provides otherwise.
Foreign financial asset reporting
A U.S. Holder that holds certain foreign financial assets (which may include the Shares) other than in an account at a financial institution may be required to report information relating to such assets to the IRS. Failure to report such information, if required, may result in substantial penalties. U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding such requirement.
PFIC status
The foregoing discussion assumes that we are not and will not become a “passive foreign investment company,” or “PFIC” for U.S. Federal income tax purposes.
A non-U.S. corporation generally will be a PFIC in any taxable year in which, after applying the relevant look-through rules with respect to the income and assets of its subsidiaries, either 75% or more of its gross income is “passive income” (generally including (without limitation) dividends, interest, annuities and certain royalties and rents not derived in the active conduct of a business) or the aggregate value of its assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income is at least 50% of the total value of its assets. In determining whether we meet the 50% test, cash is considered a passive asset, and the total value of our assets generally will be treated as equal to the sum of the aggregate fair market value of our outstanding stock plus our liabilities. If we own at least 25% (by value) of the stock of another corporation, we will be treated, for purposes of the PFIC tests, as owning our proportionate share of the other corporation’s assets and receiving our proportionate share of the other corporation’s income.
Based on our current and currently anticipated method of operation, we believe that we should not be a PFIC for the 2020 taxable year or for the foreseeable future. However, because PFIC status is determined annually and depends on the composition of a company’s income and assets and the fair market value of its assets, there can be no certainty in this regard.
If we were found to be a PFIC for any taxable year in which a U.S. Holder held ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. Holder, including a recharacterization of any capital gain recognized on a sale or other disposition of Shares as ordinary income, ineligibility for any preferential tax rate otherwise applicable to any “qualified dividend income,” a material increase in the amount of tax that such U.S. Holder would owe and the possible imposition of interest charges, an imposition of tax earlier than would otherwise be imposed and additional tax form filing requirements.
A U.S. Holder owning shares in a PFIC (or a corporation that might become a PFIC) might be able to avoid or mitigate the adverse tax consequences of PFIC status by making certain elections, including
 
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“qualified electing fund” or “mark-to-market” elections, if deemed appropriate based on guidance provided by its own tax advisor. If we are found to be a PFIC, we will use reasonable efforts to provide any information reasonably requested by a U.S. Holder in order to make such elections.
U.S. federal income taxation of non-U.S. holders
The rules governing the U.S. federal taxation of a Non-U.S. Holder are complex. A Non-U.S. Holder is urged to consult its own tax advisor regarding the application of U.S. federal tax laws, including any information reporting requirements, to its particular circumstances and any tax consequences arising under the laws of any state, local, non-U.S. or other taxing jurisdiction or under any applicable tax treaty.
A Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding tax on dividends paid on Shares unless the income is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such Non-U.S. Holder in the United States (“ECI”) (and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, the dividends are attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the Non-U.S. Holder in the U.S.).
Non-U.S. Holders generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange or other disposition of Shares, unless either:

the gain is ECI (and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the Non-U.S. Holder in the U.S.); or

the Non-U.S. Holder is an individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year of disposition and certain other conditions are met, in which case such gain (net of certain U.S. source losses) generally will be taxed at a 30% rate (unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise).
ECI will generally be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax in the same manner as discussed in the section above relating to the taxation of U.S. Holders, unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise. In addition, earnings and profits of a corporate Non-U.S. Holder that are attributable to ECI, as determined after allowance for certain adjustments, may be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a rate of 30%, or at a lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.
Information reporting and backup withholding
In general, payments of distributions on the Shares to a noncorporate U.S. Holder and proceeds of a disposition of the Shares by a noncorporate U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax information reporting requirements. Such amounts may also be subject to U.S. federal backup withholding for noncorporate U.S. Holders that:

fail to provide us with an accurate taxpayer identification number;

are notified by the IRS that they have become subject to backup withholding because they previously failed to report all interest or dividends required to be shown on their federal income tax returns; or

fail to comply with applicable certification requirements.
A Non-U.S. Holder that receives distributions on Shares, or sells Shares through the U.S. office of a broker, or a non-U.S. office of a broker with specified connections to the United States, may be subject to backup withholding and related information reporting unless the Non-U.S. Holder certifies that it is a non-U.S. person, under penalties of perjury, or otherwise establishes an exemption.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. A Holder generally may obtain a refund of any amounts withheld under backup withholding rules that exceed such Holder’s income tax liability by timely filing a refund claim with the IRS.
United Kingdom
The following statements are intended only as a general guide to certain UK tax considerations and do not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential UK tax consequences of acquiring, holding or disposing of shares of Carnival Corporation common stock. They are based on current UK law and what is
 
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understood to be the current practice of Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs (“HMRC”) as at the date of this prospectus supplement, both of which may change, possibly with retroactive effect. They apply only to shareholders who are resident, and in the case of individual shareholders domiciled, for tax purposes in (and only in) the UK, who hold their shares of Carnival Corporation common stock as an investment (other than where a tax exemption applies, for example where the shares of Carnival Corporation common stock are held in an individual savings account or pension arrangement) and who are the absolute beneficial owner of both the shares of Carnival Corporation common stock and any dividends paid on them. The tax position of certain categories of shareholders who are subject to special rules is not considered and it should be noted that they may incur liabilities to UK tax on a different basis to that described below. This includes persons acquiring their shares of Carnival Corporation common stock in connection with employment, dealers in securities, insurance companies, collective investment schemes, charities, exempt pension funds, temporary non-residents and non-residents carrying on a trade, profession or vocation in the UK.
(a) Dividends
Dividend payments may be made without withholding or deduction for or on account of UK income tax.
(i) UK resident individual shareholders
Dividends received by individual shareholders resident and domiciled for tax purposes in the UK will be subject to UK income tax. This is charged on the gross amount of any dividend paid before the deduction of any applicable withholding taxes (the “gross dividend”). Withholding taxes might arise under the laws of territories other than the UK.
Under the current UK tax rules specific rates of tax apply to dividend income. These include a nil rate of tax (the “nil rate band”) for the first £2,000 of non-exempt dividend income in any tax year and different rates of tax for dividend income that exceeds the nil rate band. No tax credit attaches to dividend income. For these purposes “dividend income” includes UK and non-UK source dividends and certain other distributions in respect of shares. For UK tax purposes the gross dividend paid by Carnival Corporation must generally be brought into account.
An individual shareholder who is resident for tax purposes in the UK and who receives a dividend from Carnival Corporation will not be liable to UK tax on the dividend to the extent that (taking account of any other non-exempt dividend income received by the shareholder in the same tax year) that dividend falls within the nil rate band.
To the extent that (taking account of any other non-exempt dividend income received by the shareholder in the same tax year) the dividend exceeds the nil rate band, it will be subject to income tax at 7.5 per cent to the extent that it falls below the threshold for higher rate income tax. To the extent that (taking account of other non-exempt dividend income received in the same tax year) it falls above the threshold for higher rate income tax then the dividend will be taxed at 32.5 per cent to the extent that it is within the higher rate band, or 38.1 per cent to the extent that it is within the additional rate band. For the purposes of determining which of the taxable bands dividend income falls into, dividend income is treated as the highest part of a shareholder’s income. In addition, dividends within the nil rate band which would (if there was no nil rate band) have fallen within the basic or higher rate bands will use up those bands respectively for the purposes of determining whether the threshold for higher rate or additional rate income tax is exceeded.
(ii) UK resident corporate shareholders
Unless the shareholder is a “small company” (see further below), it is likely that most dividends paid on the shares to UK resident corporate shareholders would fall within one or more of the classes of dividend qualifying for exemption from corporation tax. However, it should be noted that the exemptions are not comprehensive and are also subject to anti-avoidance rules.
Shareholders within the charge to UK corporation tax which are “small companies” (as that term is defined in section 931S of the Corporation Tax Act 2009) will be liable to corporation tax on dividends paid to them by Carnival Corporation because Carnival Corporation is not resident in a “qualifying territory”
 
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for the purposes of the relevant legislation. Shareholders within the charge to UK corporation tax should consult their own professional advisers.
(b) Taxation of disposals
A disposal or deemed disposal of shares of Carnival Corporation common stock by a shareholder who is resident in the UK for tax purposes may, depending upon the shareholder’s circumstances and subject to any available exemption or relief (such as the annual exempt amount for individuals), give rise to a chargeable gain or an allowable loss for the purposes of UK taxation of capital gains.
(c) UK stamp duty and stamp duty reserve tax (“SDRT”)
No liability to UK stamp duty or SDRT will arise on the issue of shares of Carnival Corporation common stock to shareholders.
UK stamp duty will not normally be payable in connection with a transfer of shares of Carnival Corporation common stock, provided that the instrument of transfer is executed and retained outside the UK and no other action is taken in the UK by the transferor or transferee. Even if such UK stamp duty were technically to arise, provided that it is not necessary to rely on the instrument of transfer in any UK legal proceedings or for any other purposes which would require it to be duly stamped, in practice it should not be necessary for UK stamp duty to be paid.
No UK SDRT will be payable in respect of any agreement to transfer shares of Carnival Corporation common stock, provided that the shares of Carnival Corporation common stock are not registered in a register kept in the UK by or on behalf of Carnival Corporation.
Panama
Under current Panamanian law, because Carnival Corporation conducts all of its operations outside of Panama, we believe that no Panamanian taxes or withholding will be imposed on payments to holders of securities of Carnival Corporation, including shares of Carnival Corporation common stock.
THE FOREGOING DISCUSSION IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND IS NOT TAX ADVICE. ACCORDINGLY, YOU SHOULD CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR AS TO THE PARTICULAR TAX CONSEQUENCES TO YOU OF PURCHASING, HOLDING AND DISPOSING OF THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING THE APPLICABILITY AND EFFECT OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAX LAWS AND ANY TAX TREATY AND ANY RECENT OR PROSPECTIVE CHANGES IN ANY APPLICABLE TAX LAWS OR TREATIES.
 
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Plan of Distribution
We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with the financial institutions named on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, as our sales agents, under which we may offer and sell from time to time our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $1,500,000,000. Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, the sales agents may act as agents on our behalf or purchase shares of our common stock as principal.
Sales, if any, of common stock made under the equity distribution agreement may be made by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions, to or through a market maker, on or through the NYSE or any other market venue where the securities may be traded, in the over-the-counter market, in privately negotiated transactions, in block trades, in transactions that are deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act or through a combination of any such methods of sale. The sales agents may also sell our common stock by any other method permitted by law. The shares of common stock may be sold at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices.
We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through the sales agents on a daily basis or otherwise as we and the sales agents agree and the minimum price per share at which such common stock may be sold. None of the sales agents is required to sell any specific dollar amount of shares. Subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, the sales agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal sales and trading practices to sell on our behalf all of the designated shares of common stock. We may instruct the sales agents not to sell any common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. We or any sales agent, with respect to itself only, may suspend the offering of our common stock by notifying the other party.
The sales agents will provide to us written confirmation before the open of trading on the NYSE on the day following each day on which shares of common stock are sold under the equity distribution agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold on such day, the gross sales proceeds and the compensation payable by us to the sales agents. We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through the sales agents under the equity distribution agreement, the net proceeds to us (before expenses) and the compensation paid by us to the sales agents in connection with the sales of the shares of common stock.
We will pay the sales agents an aggregate commission of up to 1% of the gross sales price per share of common stock sold under the equity distribution agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse the sales agents for certain of their expenses.
Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may also sell shares to each of the sales agents as principal for its own respective account at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a sales agent as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with that sales agent, setting forth the terms of such transaction, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
Settlement of any sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day following the date on which such sales were made (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading). There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the sales agents may agree.
The offering of our common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of the (i) sale of all of our shares of common stock subject to the equity distribution agreement or (ii) termination of the equity distribution agreement by us or by the sales agents as provided therein.
In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock on our behalf, each of the sales agents may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to each of the sales agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.
 
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We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the several sales agents against certain liabilities, including civil liabilities under the Securities Act.
Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the sales agents that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.
The sales agents and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include sales and trading, commercial and investment banking, advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, market making, brokerage and other financial and non-financial activities and services. Certain of the sales agents and their respective affiliates have engaged, and may in the future engage, in investment banking, commercial banking and other financial advisory and commercial dealings with us and our affiliates. In particular, certain of the sales agents or their affiliates are bookrunners, arrangers and/or lenders under the Secured Term Loan Facility and the Revolving Facility. Certain of the sales agents or their affiliates are lenders under our bilateral credit facilities. Affiliates of some of the sales agents act as dealers in our commercial paper program.
In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the sales agents and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. If any of the sales agents or their affiliates have a lending relationship with us, certain of those sales agents or their affiliates routinely hedge, and certain other of those underwriters may hedge, their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. Typically, these sales agents and their respective affiliates would hedge such exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the shares of common stock offered hereby. The sales agents and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.
Selling Restrictions
Prohibition of Sales to EEA and UK Retail Investors
In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area and the United Kingdom (each, a “Relevant State”), an offer to the public of any shares of common stock may not be made in that Relevant State, except that an offer to the public in that Relevant State of any shares of common stock may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Regulation:
(a)   to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined under the Prospectus Regulation;
(b)   to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than “qualified investors” as defined under the Prospectus Regulation), per Relevant State, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriters for any such offer; or
(c)   in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation;
provided that no such offer of shares of common stock shall result in a requirement for the Carnival Corporation & plc or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation or a supplemental prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation and each
 
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person who initially acquires any shares of common stock or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, warranted and agreed to and with each of the underwriters and the Carnival Corporation & plc that it is a qualified investor within the meaning of Article 2(e) of the Prospectus Regulation. The Carnival Corporation & plc, the underwriters and their affiliates will rely upon the truth and accuracy of the foregoing representation, warranty and agreement.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares in any Relevant State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares of common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any shares of common stock, and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129.
Notice to prospective investors in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, this prospectus and any other material in relation to the shares of common stock described herein are being distributed only to, and are directed only at, persons who are “qualified investors “ (as defined in the Prospectus Regulation ) who are (i) persons having professional experience in matters relating to investments falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005 (as amended, the “Order”), or (ii) high net worth entities falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order, or (iii) persons to whom it would otherwise be lawful to distribute them, all such persons together being referred to as “Relevant Persons”. In the United Kingdom, the shares of common stock are only available to, and any invitation, offer or agreement to subscribe, purchase or otherwise acquire such shares of common stock will be engaged in only with, Relevant Persons. This prospectus and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by any recipients to any other person in the United Kingdom. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a Relevant Person should not act or rely on this prospectus or its contents. The shares of common stock are not being offered to the public in the United Kingdom.
Notice to prospective investors in Canada
The shares of common stock may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the shares of common stock must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.
Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation; provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.
Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.
Notice to prospective investors in Panama
The shares of common stock have not been and will not be registered under the Panamanian Securities Act with the Superintendence of Capital Markets in the Republic of Panama. Accordingly, (i) the shares of common stock cannot be publicly offered or sold in Panama, except in transactions exempted from registration under the Panamanian Securities Act, (ii) the Panamanian Superintendence of Capital Markets has not reviewed the information contained in this prospectus supplement, (iii) the shares of common stock and the offering thereof are not subject to the supervision of the Panamanian Superintendence of Capital Markets, and (iv) the shares of common stock do not benefit from the tax incentives provided by Panamanian Securities Act.
 
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Notice to prospective investors in Hong Kong
The shares of common stock have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than: (1) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong and any rules made under that Ordinance; or (2) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of that Ordinance. No advertisement, invitation or document relating to the shares has been or may be issued or has been or may be in the possession of any person for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to shares which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made under that Ordinance.
Notice to prospective investors in Japan
The shares of common stock have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (Law No. 25 of 1948, as amended) (the “FIEA”) and disclosure under the FIEA has not been and will not be made with respect to the shares of common stock. Accordingly, the shares of common stock thereof may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan, or to, or for the benefit of, any Japanese Person or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any Japanese Person, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the FIEA and other relevant laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines promulgated by relevant Japanese governmental or regulatory authorities in effect at the relevant time. For the purposes of this paragraph, “Japanese Person” shall mean any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan.
Notice to prospective investors in Singapore
This prospectus supplement has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the shares of common stock have not been and may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the shares of common stock be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289, of Singapore (the “SFA”), (ii) to a relevant person pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA, or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA. Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is: (a) a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)), the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or (b) a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary is an accredited investor; then securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest in that trust will not be transferable for six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the securities under Section 275 of the SFA except: (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA, or to a relevant person under Section 275(2) of the SFA, or any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA; (ii) where no consideration is given for the transfer; (iii) by operation of law; or (iv) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA.
Singapore Securities and Futures Act Product Classification — Solely for the purposes of its obligations pursuant to Sections 309B(1)(a) and 309B(1)(c) of the SFA, Carnival Corporation has determined, and hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A of the SFA) that the shares of common stock are “prescribed capital markets products” (as defined in the Securities and Futures (Capital Markets Products) Regulations 2018) and “Excluded Investment Products” (as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).
 
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Legal Matters
Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP has acted as special U.S. counsel to Carnival Corporation in connection with this offering. The validity of the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus and certain other matters with respect to Panamanian law have been passed upon for Carnival Corporation by Tapia Linares y Alfaro. The validity of the trust shares of beneficial interest in the P&O Princess Special Voting Trust and certain other matters with respect to Cayman Islands law have been passed upon by Maples and Calder. The validity of the Carnival plc special voting share and certain other matters with respect to the laws of England and Wales have been passed upon for Carnival plc by Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer. Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP, New York, New York is acting as counsel to the sales agents.
Experts
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to Carnival Corporation & plc’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated March 31, 2020, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the joint Annual Report on Form 10-K of Carnival Corporation & plc for the year ended November 30, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an emphasis of matter paragraph relating to the impact of COVID-19, the Company’s liquidity and management’s plans, as described in Note 2 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_carnivalcorp-4c.jpg]
CARNIVAL CORPORATION
DEBT SECURITIES
COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
WARRANTS TO PURCHASE SECURITIES
PURCHASE CONTRACTS
UNITS
CARNIVAL PLC
DEBT SECURITIES
Carnival Corporation or selling securityholders may from time to time sell:

shares of common stock;

shares of preferred stock;

debt securities, which will be guaranteed on an unsecured basis by Carnival plc;

warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of them and warrants to buy and sell government debt securities, foreign currencies, currency units or units of a currency index or basket, units of a stock index or basket, or a commodity or commodity index;

purchase contracts; and

units.
Carnival plc may from time to time sell debt securities, which will be guaranteed on an unsecured basis by Carnival Corporation.
Each share of our common stock is paired with a trust share of beneficial interest in the P&O Princess Special Voting Trust. The trust shares represent a beneficial interest in the special voting share issued by Carnival plc. Our common stock and the paired trust shares are not separable and are listed and trade together on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “CCL.” In this prospectus, whenever we refer to shares of our common stock, unless the context requires otherwise, we are also referring to the paired trust shares. Any common stock sold under this prospectus, as it may be supplemented, will be listed on the NYSE, subject to official notice of issuance.
WE OR CARNIVAL PLC, AS APPLICABLE, WILL PROVIDE SPECIFIC TERMS OF ANY OFFERING IN SUPPLEMENTS TO THIS PROSPECTUS. THE SECURITIES MAY BE OFFERED SEPARATELY OR TOGETHER IN ANY COMBINATION AND AS SEPARATE SERIES. YOU SHOULD READ THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE YOU INVEST.
INVESTING IN THE SECURITIES OFFERED BY THIS PROSPECTUS INVOLVES RISKS THAT ARE DESCRIBED IN THE “RISK FACTORS” SECTION BEGINNING ON PAGE 2 OF THIS PROSPECTUS.
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION, HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS OR THE ACCOMPANYING PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
We, Carnival plc or the selling securityholders may sell these securities on a continuous or delayed basis directly, through agents, dealers or underwriters as designated from time to time, or through a combination of these methods. We, Carnival plc and the selling securityholders reserve the sole right to accept, and together with any agents, dealers and underwriters, reserve the right to reject, in whole or in part, any proposed purchase of securities. If any agents, dealers or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities, the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth any applicable commissions or discounts. The net proceeds to us, Carnival plc or the selling securityholders from the sale of securities also will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
References in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our” and “Carnival Corporation” are to Carnival Corporation including, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, its subsidiaries. References to “Carnival plc” are to Carnival plc including, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, its subsidiaries. References to “Carnival Corporation & plc” are to both Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc collectively, following the establishment of the dual listed company arrangement. For more information about the dual listed company arrangement, please see “The Companies.”
This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). By using a shelf registration statement, we, Carnival plc or the selling securityholders may sell, at any time and from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. The exhibits to our registration statement contain the full text of certain contracts and other important documents we have summarized in this prospectus. Since these summaries may not contain all the information that you may find important in deciding whether to purchase the securities we offer, you should review the full text of these documents. The registration statement and the exhibits can be obtained from the SEC as indicated under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we or Carnival plc may offer. Each time we, Carnival plc or the selling securityholders sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that contains specific information about the terms of those securities.
 
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The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
WE, CARNIVAL PLC AND THE SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS ARE NOT MAKING AN OFFER OF THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE THE OFFER IS NOT PERMITTED. YOU SHOULD NOT ASSUME THAT THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS OR A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT IS ACCURATE AS OF ANY DATE OTHER THAN THE DATE ON THE FRONT OF THE DOCUMENT.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
You may read and copy any document previously filed by each of Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F. Street, N.E., Washington D.C. 20549. Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc file combined reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Copies of such information filed with the SEC may be obtained at prescribed rates from the Public Reference Room. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room. In addition, the SEC maintains a web site (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding registrants, such as Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc, which file electronically with the SEC. Materials that Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc have filed may also be inspected at the library of the NYSE, 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005.
The periodic reports of Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) contain the consolidated financial statements of Carnival Corporation & plc.
You should only rely on the information contained in this prospectus and incorporated by reference in it.
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Carnival Corporation (File number 1-9610) and Carnival plc (File number 1-15136) are incorporating by reference into this prospectus the following documents or portions of documents filed with the SEC:

Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s joint Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed on January 29, 2018, for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2017 (the “Annual Report”);

The information responsive to Part III of the Annual Report provided in Carnival Corporation’s and Carnival plc’s Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed on March 2, 2018; and

All other documents filed by Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering.
You should rely only on the information contained in this document or that information to which this prospectus has referred you. Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc have not authorized anyone to provide you with any additional information.
Any statement contained in this prospectus or a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.
 
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The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus are available from Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc upon request. Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc will provide a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus to any person, without charge, upon written or oral request. If exhibits to the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus are not themselves specifically incorporated by reference in this prospectus, then the exhibits will not be provided. Requests for such copies should be directed to the following:
CARNIVAL CORPORATION
CARNIVAL PLC
3655 N.W. 87TH AVENUE
MIAMI, FLORIDA 33178-2428
ATTENTION: CORPORATE SECRETARY
TELEPHONE: (305) 599-2600, EXT. 18018.
Except as provided above, no other information, including information on the web site of Carnival Corporation or Carnival plc, is incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
 
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THE COMPANIES
Carnival Corporation & plc
Carnival Corporation & plc is the world’s largest leisure travel company and among the most profitable and financially strong in the cruise and vacation industries. Carnival Corporation & plc is also the largest cruise company, carrying nearly half of global cruise guests, and a leading provider of vacations to all major cruise destinations throughout the world. With operations in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia, Carnival Corporation & plc operates over 100 cruise ships within a portfolio of leading global, regional and national cruise brands that sell tailored cruise products, services and vacation experiences in all the world’s most desirable destinations.
On April 17, 2003, Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc completed a dual listed company transaction, or DLC transaction, which implemented Carnival Corporation & plc’s DLC arrangement. Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc are both public companies, with separate stock exchange listings and their own shareholders. The two companies operate as if they are a single economic enterprise with a single executive management team and identical Boards of Directors, but each has retained its separate legal identity.
Carnival Corporation
Carnival Corporation was incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Panama in November 1972. Carnival Corporation’s common stock and the paired trust shares, which trade together with the common stock, are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “CCL.” Carnival Corporation’s principal executive offices are located at Carnival Place, 3655 N.W. 87th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33178-2428. The telephone number of Carnival Corporation’s principal executive offices is (305) 599-2600.
Carnival plc
Carnival plc was incorporated and registered in England and Wales as P&O Princess Cruises plc in July 2000 and was renamed “Carnival plc” on April 17, 2003, the date on which the DLC transaction with Carnival Corporation closed. Carnival plc’s ordinary shares are listed on the London Stock Exchange, and Carnival plc’s American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, are listed on the NYSE. Carnival plc ordinary shares trade under the ticker symbol “CCL” on the London Stock Exchange. Carnival plc ADSs trade under the ticker symbol “CUK” on the NYSE. Carnival plc’s principal executive offices are located at Carnival House, 100 Harbour Parade, Southampton SO15 1ST, United Kingdom. The telephone number of Carnival plc’s principal executive offices is 011 44 23 8065 5000.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in the securities offered by this prospectus involves a number of risks. You should carefully consider the following information about these risks, together with the specific risks discussed or incorporated by reference in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all the other information contained in the prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” included in the joint Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended November 30, 2017, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future.
Risks Relating to the Guarantees
The guarantees of Carnival Corporation and/or Carnival plc may be unenforceable due to fraudulent conveyance statutes and, accordingly, you could have no claim against Carnival Corporation or Carnival plc, as applicable, as guarantor of any Carnival plc or Carnival Corporation debt securities, as applicable.
Although laws differ among various jurisdictions, a court could, under fraudulent conveyance laws, subordinate or avoid the guarantee of Carnival Corporation or the guarantee of Carnival plc if it found that either such guarantee was incurred with actual intent to hinder, delay or defraud creditors, or if the guarantor did not receive fair consideration or reasonably equivalent value for the guarantee and that the guarantor:

was insolvent or rendered insolvent because of the guarantee;

was engaged in a business or transaction for which its remaining assets constituted unreasonably small capital; or

intended to incur, or believed that it would incur, debts beyond the relevant guarantor’s ability to pay at maturity.
Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc do not believe that the issuance of the guarantees will be a fraudulent conveyance because, among other things, Carnival Corporation or Carnival plc, as applicable, will receive benefits. Carnival Corporation or Carnival plc, as applicable, will receive a reciprocal guarantee by Carnival plc or Carnival Corporation, as applicable, of its indebtedness. In addition, Carnival Corporation or Carnival plc, as applicable, receives the benefit of a streamlining and unification of the debt capital structure of Carnival Corporation & plc as a whole. However, if a court were to void the guarantee of a guarantor as the result of a fraudulent conveyance by such guarantor or hold it unenforceable for any other reason, you would cease to have a claim against that guarantor based on its guarantee and would solely be a creditor of Carnival Corporation or Carnival plc, as applicable.
Risk Factors Related to Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, and holders could lose all or part of their investment.
Volatility in the market price of our common stock may prevent holders from being able to sell their shares at or above the price they paid for their shares. The market price of our common stock could fluctuate significantly for various reasons which include, among others:

changes in the prices or availability of fuel;

our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

our earnings or recommendations by research analysts who track our common stock or the stock of other cruise companies;
 
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general economic and business conditions in the U.S. and global economies, financial markets or cruise industry, including those resulting from availability and pricing of air travel services, armed conflicts, cruise ship accidents, the spread of contagious diseases, incidents of terrorism or responses to such events;

our ability to continue the payment of a cash dividend on our common stock or provide other returns to our shareholders;

our ability to access the credit markets for sufficient amounts of capital and on terms that are favorable or consistent with our expectations;

the decline in the securities market and the economic slowdown that affect the value of assets and the economic strength of our customers and suppliers; and

the other factors described herein and under the caption “Risk Factors” in the joint Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended November 30, 2017 and under the caption “Forward-Looking Statements” in this prospectus.
In addition, in the past, the U.S., European and other stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including companies in our industry. The changes sometimes occurred without regard to the operating performance of these companies. The price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc, and these fluctuations could materially reduce our stock price.
Future sales of shares could depress our stock price.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, or the perception that a large number of shares will be sold, could depress the market price of our common stock.
As of the date of this prospectus, approximately 149,893,412 outstanding shares of our common stock are restricted pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) (excluding options and restricted stock units), and holders of approximately 23.6% of the outstanding shares of our common stock (excluding options and restricted stock units) have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include such shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. By exercising their registration rights and selling a large number of shares, these stockholders could cause the price of our common stock to decline.
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Some of the statements, estimates or projections contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus are “forward-looking statements” that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions with respect to us, including some statements concerning the transactions described in this prospectus, future results, outlooks, plans, goals and other events which have not yet occurred. These statements are intended to qualify for the safe harbors from liability provided by Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical facts are statements that could be deemed forward-looking. These statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. We have tried, whenever possible, to identify these statements by using words like “will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “believe,” “depends,” “expect,” “goal,” “anticipate,” “forecast,” “project,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “target,” “indicate” and similar expressions of future intent or the negative of such terms.
Forward-looking statements include those statements that may impact our outlook including, but not limited to, the forecasting of our:

Net revenue yields

Net cruise costs, excluding fuel per available lower berth day

Booking levels

Estimates of ship depreciable lives and residual values

Pricing and occupancy

Goodwill, ship and trademark fair values

Interest, tax and fuel expenses

Liquidity

Currency exchange rates

Adjusted earnings per share
Because forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, there are many factors that could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied in this prospectus. This note contains important cautionary statements of the known factors that we consider could materially affect the accuracy of our forward-looking statements and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position. It is not possible to predict or identify all such risks. There may be additional risks that we consider immaterial or which are unknown. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

The demand for cruises may decline due to adverse world events impacting the ability or desire of people to travel, including conditions affecting the safety and security of travel, government regulations and requirements, and decline in consumer confidence

Incidents, such as ship incidents, security incidents, the spread of contagious diseases and threats thereof, adverse weather conditions or other natural disasters and the related adverse publicity affecting our reputation and the health, safety, security and satisfaction of guests and crew

Changes in and compliance with laws and regulations relating to environment, health, safety, security, data privacy and protection, tax and anti-corruption under which we operate may lead to litigations, enforcement actions, fines, or penalties

Disruptions and other damages to our information technology and other networks and operations, breaches in data security, lapses in data privacy, and failure to keep pace with developments in technology

Ability to recruit, develop and retain qualified shipboard personnel who live on ships away from home for extended periods of time

Increases in fuel prices and availability of fuel supply

Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates

Overcapacity and competition in the cruise ship and land-based vacation industry
 
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Continuing financial viability of our travel agent distribution system, air service providers and other key vendors in our supply chain, as well as reductions in the availability of, and increases in the prices for, the services and products provided by these vendors

Inability to implement our shipbuilding programs and ship repairs, maintenance and refurbishments on terms that are favorable or consistent with our expectations, as well as increases to our repairs and maintenance expenses and refurbishment costs as our fleet ages

Geographic regions in which we try to expand our business may be slow to develop and ultimately not develop how we expect
The ordering of the risk factors set forth above is not intended to reflect any indication of priority or likelihood. These risks and other risks are detailed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in the SEC reports of Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc. That section and those reports contain important cautionary statements and a discussion of many of the factors that could materially affect the accuracy of Carnival Corporation & plc’s forward-looking statements and/or adversely affect Carnival Corporation & plc’s businesses, results of operations and financial position. Such statements and factors are incorporated in this prospectus by reference.
Forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as a prediction of actual results. Subject to any continuing obligations under applicable law or any relevant stock exchange rules, Carnival Corporation & plc expressly disclaim any obligation to disseminate, after the date of this prospectus, any updates or revisions to any such forward-looking statements to reflect any change in expectations or events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements are based.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we or Carnival plc, as applicable, will add the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered by either Carnival Corporation or Carnival plc under this prospectus to our or Carnival’s plc respective working capital. The proceeds will be available for general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment of indebtedness, the financing of capital commitments and possible future acquisitions to expand the business of Carnival Corporation & plc.
Carnival Corporation & plc will not receive any proceeds from the resale of securities by selling securityholders under this prospectus or any supplement to it.
 
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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES
Carnival Corporation & plc
The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges on a historical basis for the periods indicated. Earnings include net income, adjusted for income taxes, plus fixed charges and exclude capitalized interest. Fixed charges include gross interest expense, amortization of deferred financing expenses and an amount equivalent to interest included in rent expense. We have assumed that one-third of rent expense is representative of the interest portion of rent expense.
Years ended November 30,
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
Ratio of earnings to fixed charges
11.6x 11.3x 7.8x 4.6x 3.9x
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES OF CARNIVAL CORPORATION
We may issue from time to time debt securities in one or more series that will consist of either senior debt (“Senior Debt Securities”) or subordinated debt (“Subordinated Debt Securities”). The Senior Debt Securities will be issued under an indenture (the “Senior Indenture”), to be entered into between us, Carnival plc, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association (the “Senior Trustee”), as Trustee. The Subordinated Debt Securities will be issued under an indenture (the “Subordinated Indenture”), to be entered into between us, Carnival plc, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association (the “Subordinated Trustee”), as Trustee. The term “Indenture” refers to either the Senior Indenture or the Subordinated Indenture, as appropriate, the term “Trustee” refers to either the Senior Trustee or the Subordinated Trustee, as appropriate, and the term “Debt Securities” refers to the Senior Debt Securities and the Subordinated Debt Securities. Each Indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
The following statements with respect to the Debt Securities are not complete and are subject to the detailed provisions of the Senior Indenture and the Subordinated Indenture. Forms of these agreements are filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement.
The particular terms of each series of Debt Securities (including any additions or modifications to the general terms of the Debt Securities) will be described in a prospectus supplement that will be filed with the SEC. To review the terms of a particular series of Debt Securities, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement for the particular series and to the description of Debt Securities contained in this prospectus. There may be different trustees for one or more different series of Debt Securities. See “— Trustee.”
General
The applicable prospectus supplement for a series of Debt Securities to be issued will describe the following terms of the offered Debt Securities:

the title;

the aggregate principal amount;

the percentage of their principal amount at which they will be offered;

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

the interest rate or rates and/or the method of determining the interest rates;

the dates from which interest, if any, will accrue, the method of determining those dates, and the dates on which interest is payable;

the terms for redemption, extension or early repayment;

the denominations in which the Debt Securities are authorized to be issued (if other than denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple thereof);

the currency or currencies of payment of principal or interest;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

if it is an amount other than the principal amount of the Debt Securities, the portion of the principal amount that will be payable if the maturity of the Debt Securities is declared to be accelerated;

any other restrictive covenants included for the benefit of the holders of the Debt Securities;

the events of default;

whether the Debt Securities are issuable as a global security or securities;

the applicable tax consequences related to the Debt Securities;
 
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the terms and conditions, if any, under which the Debt Securities may be converted into or exchanged for our common stock or other securities;

the applicability of the provisions described in “— Defeasance” below;

any subordination provisions applicable to the Debt Securities in addition to or different than those described under “— Subordination” below; and

any other term or provision which is not inconsistent with the Indenture.
One or more series of Debt Securities may be sold at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount, bearing no interest or interest at a rate which at the time of issuance is below market rates. Any applicable federal income tax consequences and special considerations will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Except as otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, will be payable at an office or agency to be maintained by us, except that at our option, interest may be paid by a check mailed to the person entitled to it.
The Debt Securities will be issued only in fully registered form without coupons and may be presented for registration of transfer or exchange at the corporate trust office of the Trustee. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of the Debt Securities, but we may require payment of a sum to cover any tax or other governmental charge that must be paid in connection with the transfer or exchange. Not all Debt Securities of any one series need be issued at the same time, and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened for issuances of additional Debt Securities of that series.
The Indenture does not contain any covenants or provisions that are specifically intended to give holders of the Debt Securities protection if we undertake a highly leveraged transaction. With respect to any series of Debt Securities, the existence or non-existence of such covenants or provisions will be disclosed in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Neither Panamanian law nor our Articles of Incorporation or By-laws limit the right of non-resident or foreign owners to hold Debt Securities. While no tax treaty currently exists between the Republic of Panama and the U.S., we believe that under current law interest payments to holders of our Debt Securities are not subject to taxation under the laws of the Republic of Panama.
Guarantees of Debt Securities
Carnival plc will guarantee our Debt Securities under the Guarantees (as defined below), which will be contained in the applicable Indenture. Carnival plc, as obligor, will irrevocably, unconditionally and absolutely guarantee, jointly and severally and on a continuing basis, to each holder of the Debt Securities and to the applicable Trustee and its successors and assigns, as and for Carnival plc’s own debt, until final and indefeasible payment of the amounts referred to in clause (a) have been made: (a) the due and punctual payment of principal and interest, and, if applicable, Additional Amounts (as defined below under “— Payment of Additional Amounts”) (if any), on the Debt Securities when due, whether at maturity, by acceleration, by redemption or otherwise, and all other monetary obligations of ours under the Indentures (including obligations applicable to the Trustee) and the Debt Securities; and (b) the punctual and faithful performance, keeping, observance and fulfillment by us of all duties, agreements, covenants and obligations of ours under the Indentures and the Debt Securities (the obligations set forth in clauses (a) and (b), collectively, the “Guarantees”). Such Guarantees will constitute guarantees of payment and not merely of collection. The obligations of Carnival plc under the Indentures will be immediate and not contingent upon the exercise or enforcement by any holder of Debt Securities or other person. The Guarantees will be governed by New York law.
 
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Book-Entry System
The Debt Securities of a series may be issued in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with a depository (the “Depository”) or with a nominee for the Depository identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, and will be registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of it. In such a case one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the aggregate principal amount of all the Debt Securities of the series to be represented by the global security or securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Debt Securities in definitive certificated form, a global security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depository for that series, or to a successor Depository for that series selected or approved by us, or to a nominee of that successor Depository.
The specific depository arrangement with respect to any series of Debt Securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Payment of Additional Amounts
We will agree that any amounts payable on the Debt Securities will be paid without deduction or withholding for any and all present and future taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges imposed, assessed, levied or collected by or for the account of (i)(x) the Republic of Panama or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or (y) the jurisdiction of incorporation (other than the U.S. or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) of a successor entity to us, to the extent that such taxes, levies, imports or other governmental charges first become applicable as a result of such successor entity becoming the obligor on the Debt Securities, or (ii) any other jurisdiction (other than the U.S. or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) from or through which any amount is paid by us with respect to the Debt Securities or where we are resident or maintain a place of business or permanent establishment (each jurisdiction described in clauses (i) and (ii) above is referred to herein as a “Taxing Jurisdiction” and such taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges are referred to as “Taxes”), unless the withholding or deduction of such Tax is compelled by laws of the Republic of Panama or any other applicable Taxing Jurisdiction. If any deduction or withholding of any Taxes (other than Excluded Taxes, as defined below) is ever required by the Republic of Panama or any other Taxing Jurisdiction, we will (if the holders or beneficial owners of the relevant Debt Securities comply with any applicable administrative requirements) pay any additional amounts (“Additional Amounts”) required to make the net amounts paid to each holder of the Debt Securities or the Trustee pursuant to the terms of the Indenture or the Debt Securities after such deduction or withholding equal to the amounts then due and payable under the terms of the Indenture or the Debt Securities. However, we will not be required to pay Additional Amounts in respect of the following Taxes (“Excluded Taxes”):

any present or future Taxes imposed, assessed, levied or collected as a result of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant Debt Security (i) being organized under the laws of, or otherwise being or having been a domiciliary, national or resident of, (ii) being engaged or having been engaged in a trade or business in, (iii) having or having had its principal office located in, (iv) maintaining or having maintained a permanent establishment in, (v) being or having been physically present in, or (vi) otherwise having or having had some connection (other than the connection arising from holding or owning a Debt Security, or collecting principal and interest, if any, on, or the enforcement of, a Debt Security) with the Republic of Panama or any other applicable Taxing Jurisdiction;

any present or future Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the fact that, where presentation is required, the relevant Debt Security was presented more than thirty days after the date the payment became due or was provided for, whichever is later;

any present or future Taxes imposed under Sections 1471-1474 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, or any present or future Taxes imposed under comparable provisions of non-United States tax law;

any present or future Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the failure to comply with any certification, identification or other report concerning the nationality,
 
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residence, identity or connection with the Republic of Panama or any other applicable Taxing Jurisdiction of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant Debt Security, or claim for relief or exemption, if making such a certification, identification, other report or claim is, under the laws, rules or regulations of any such jurisdiction, a condition to relief or exemption from Taxes;

any estate, inheritance, gift, sale, transfer, personal property or similar Tax or duty; or

any combination of the foregoing
provided further, that no such Additional Amounts will be payable in respect of any Debt Security held by (x) any holder or beneficial owner that is not the sole beneficial owner of such Debt Security, or that is a fiduciary, partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, but only to the extent that a beneficiary or settlor with respect to the fiduciary or a beneficial owner, partner or member of the partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, would not have been entitled to such Additional Amounts had the beneficiary, settlor, beneficial owner, partner or member been the direct holder of such Debt Security, (y) any holder that is not a resident of the U.S. to the extent that, had such holder been a resident of the U.S. and eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the U.S. and the applicable Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the Indenture and the Debt Securities, such holder would not have been entitled to such Additional Amounts, or (z) any holder that is resident of the U.S. but that is not eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the U.S. and the applicable Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the Indenture and the Debt Securities (but only to the extent the amount of such deduction or withholding exceeds that which would have been required had such holder of a Debt Security been so eligible and made all relevant claims).
We or any successor to us, as the case may be, will indemnify and hold harmless each holder of the Debt Securities and upon written request reimburse each holder for the amount of:

any Taxes levied or imposed and paid by the holder of the Debt Securities (other than Excluded Taxes) as a result of payments made with respect to such Debt Securities;

any liability (including penalties, interest and expenses) arising therefrom with respect thereto; and

any Taxes (other than Excluded Taxes) with respect to payment of Additional Amounts or any reimbursement pursuant to this list;
in each case, to the extent not otherwise reimbursed by the payment of any Additional Amount and not excluded from the requirement to pay Additional Amounts, as described above.
We or our successor, as the case may be, will also:

make such withholding or deduction, to the extent required by applicable law; and

remit the full amount deducted or withheld, to the relevant authority in accordance with applicable law.
We or any successor to us, as the case may be, will furnish the Trustee within 30 days after the date the payment of any Taxes is due pursuant to applicable law, certified copies of tax receipts evidencing the payment by us or any successor to us, as the case may be, or other evidence of such payment reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee.
At least 30 days prior to each date on which any payment under or with respect to the Debt Securities is due and payable, if we will be obligated to pay Additional Amounts with respect to those payments, we will deliver to the Trustee an officers’ certificate stating that such Additional Amounts will be payable, stating the amounts that will be payable, and setting forth any other information necessary to enable the Trustee to pay the Additional Amounts to holders of the Debt Securities on the payment date.
Each holder of a Debt Security, by acceptance of such Security, agrees that, with reasonable promptness after receiving our written notice to the effect that such holder is eligible for a refund in respect of Taxes actually
 
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paid by us under the terms of the Debt Security or the Indenture, such holder will sign and deliver to us, as reasonably directed by us, any form we provide to such holder to enable such holder to obtain a refund in respect of such Taxes; and if such holder thereafter receives such refund in respect of such Taxes, such holder will promptly pay such refund to us (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority). If a holder applies for a refund of such Taxes prior to our request to apply for such a refund, the holder will, upon receipt of our request to apply for, or to turn over the proceeds of, any such refund, pay any such refund to us (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority), promptly upon receipt of such refund. We will pay all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by a holder in connection with obtaining such refund.
Carnival plc, the Guarantor of our Debt Securities, will agree to make, with respect to the Indenture and the Debt Securities, all such payments to be paid without deduction or withholding for any and all present and future taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges whatsoever imposed, assessed, levied or collected by or for the account of (i)(x) the United Kingdom or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or (y) the jurisdiction of tax residence (other than the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) of a successor entity to Carnival plc, to the extent that such taxes, levies, imports or other governmental charges first become applicable as a result of such successor entity becoming the obligor on the Guarantees, as applicable, or (ii) any other jurisdiction (other than the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) from or through which any amount is paid by Carnival plc under the Indenture or where it is resident or maintains a place of business or permanent establishment (each jurisdiction described in clauses (i) and (ii) above is referred to herein as a “Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction” and such taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges are referred to as “Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes”), unless the withholding or deduction of such Guarantor Jurisdiction Tax is compelled by laws of the United Kingdom, or any other applicable Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction. If any deduction or withholding of any Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes (other than Guarantor Excluded Taxes, as defined below) is ever required by the United Kingdom or any other Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction, Carnival plc will (if the holders or beneficial owners of the relevant Debt Securities comply with any applicable administrative requirements) pay such additional amounts (“Guarantor Additional Amounts”) required to make the net amounts paid to each Holder of Debt Securities or the Trustee pursuant to the terms of the Indenture or the Debt Securities, after such deduction or withholding, equal to the amounts then due and payable under the terms of the Indenture or the Debt Security. However, the Guarantor shall not be required to pay Guarantor Additional Amounts in respect of the following Taxes (“Guarantor Excluded Taxes”):

any present or future Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes imposed, assessed, levied or collected as a result of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant Debt Security (i) being organized under the laws of, or otherwise being or having been a domiciliary, national or resident of, (ii) being engaged or having been engaged in a trade or business in, (iii) having or having had its principal office located in, (iv) maintaining or having maintained a permanent establishment in, (v) being or having been physically present in, or (vi) otherwise having or having had some connection (other than the connection arising from holding or owning the relevant Debt Security, or collecting principal and interest, if any, on, or the enforcement of, such Debt Security) with the United Kingdom or any other applicable Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction;

any present or future Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the fact that, where presentation is required, the relevant Debt Security was presented more than thirty days after the date the payment became due or was provided for, whichever is later;

any present or future Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes imposed under Sections 1471-1474 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, or any present or future Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes imposed under comparable provisions of non-United States tax law;
 
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any present or future Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the failure to comply with any certification, identification or other report concerning the nationality, residence, identity or connection with the United Kingdom or any other applicable Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant Debt Security or claim for relief or exemption, if making such a certification, identification, other report or claim is, under the laws, rules or regulations of any such jurisdiction, a condition to relief or exemption from Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes;

any present or future Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes imposed on a payment to a holder and required to be made pursuant to any law implementing European Council Directive 2003/48/EC or any other directive implementing the conclusions of the ECOFIN Council meeting of 26 – 27 November 2000 or any law implementing or complying with, or introduced in order to conform to, such directive;

any present or future Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes imposed on a payment to, or with respect to, a holder who would have been able to avoid such Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes by presenting the relevant Debt Security to a paying agent in a member state of the European Union;

any estate, inheritance, gift, sale, transfer, personal property or similar Guarantor Jurisdiction Tax or duty; or

any combination of the foregoing;
provided further, that no such Guarantor Additional Amounts shall be payable in respect of any Debt Security held by (x) any holder or beneficial owner that is not the sole beneficial owner of such Debt Security, or that is a fiduciary, partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, but only to the extent that a beneficiary or settlor with respect to the fiduciary or a beneficial owner, partner or member of the partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, would not have been entitled to such Guarantor Additional Amounts had the beneficiary, settlor, beneficial owner, partner or member been the direct holder of such Debt Security, (y) any holder that is not a resident of the United States to the extent that, had such holder been a resident of the United States and eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the United States, and the applicable Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the Indenture and the Debt Security, such holder would not have been entitled to such Guarantor Additional Amounts, or (z) any holder that is a resident of the United States but that is not eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the United States and the applicable Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the Indenture and the Debt Security (but only to the extent the amount of such deduction or withholding exceeds that which would have been required had such holder of a Debt Security been so eligible and made all relevant claims).
Carnival plc or any successor to it, as the case may be, will indemnify and hold harmless each holder of Debt Securities and upon written request reimburse each holder for the amount of:

any Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes levied or imposed and paid by such holder of Debt Securities (other than Guarantor Excluded Taxes) as a result of payments made with respect to such Debt Securities.

any liability (including penalties, interest and expenses) arising therefrom with respect thereto; and

any Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes (other than Guarantor Excluded Taxes) with respect to payment of Guarantor Additional Amounts or any reimbursement pursuant to this list;
in each case, to the extent not otherwise reimbursed by the payment of any Guarantor Additional Amount and not excluded from the requirement to pay Guarantor Additional Amounts, as described above.
Carnival plc or its successor, as the case may be, will also:

make such withholding or deduction to the extent required by applicable law; and

remit the full amount deducted or withheld to the relevant authority in accordance with applicable law.
 
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Carnival plc or any successor to it, as the case may be, will furnish the Trustee within 30 days after the date the payment of any such Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes is due pursuant to applicable law, certified copies of tax receipts evidencing the payment by Carnival plc or any successor to it, as the case may be, or other evidence of such payment reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee.
At least 30 days prior to each date on which any payment under or with respect to the Debt Securities is due and payable by Carnival plc under the Guarantees, if Carnival plc will be obligated to pay Guarantor Additional Amounts with respect to those payments, Carnival plc will deliver to the Trustee an officers’ certificate stating that Guarantor Additional Amounts will be payable, stating the amounts that will be payable, and setting forth any other information necessary to enable the Trustee to pay the Guarantor Additional Amounts to holders of the Debt Securities on the payment date.
Each holder of the Debt Securities, by acceptance of the Debt Securities, agrees that, with reasonable promptness after receiving written notice from Carnival plc to the effect that such holder is eligible for a refund in respect of Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes actually paid by Carnival plc, such holder will sign and deliver, as reasonably directed by Carnival plc, any form provided to such by Carnival plc to enable such holder to obtain a refund in respect of such Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes; and if such holder thereafter receives such refund in respect of such Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes, such holder will promptly pay such refund to Carnival plc (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority). If a holder applies for a refund of such Guarantor Jurisdiction Taxes prior to a request by Carnival plc to apply for such a refund, the holder will, upon receipt of a request by Carnival plc to apply for, or to turn over the proceeds of, any such refund, pay any such refund to Carnival plc (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority), promptly upon receipt of such refund. Carnival plc shall pay all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by a holder in connection with obtaining such refund.
Redemption of Debt Securities under Certain Circumstances
Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement with respect to any series of Debt Securities, if as the result of any change in or any amendment to the laws, including any regulations and any applicable double taxation treaty or convention, of the Republic of Panama (or the jurisdiction of incorporation (other than the U.S) of a successor entity to us), or of any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities affecting taxation, or any change in an application or interpretation of those laws, which change, amendment, application or interpretation becomes effective on or after the original issuance date of the series of Debt Securities (or, in certain circumstances, the later date on which an entity becomes a successor entity to us), we determine based upon an opinion of independent counsel of recognized standing that:

we would be required to pay Additional Amounts on the next succeeding date for the payment thereof (and such obligation could not be avoided by us taking reasonable measures available to us), or

any taxes would be imposed (whether by way of deduction, withholding or otherwise) by the Republic of Panama (or the jurisdiction of incorporation (other than the U.S.) of a successor entity to us) or by any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities, upon or with respect to any principal, premium, if any, interest, if any, or sinking fund or analogous payments, if any,
then we may, at our option, on giving not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ irrevocable notice, redeem the series of Debt Securities in whole at any time (other than Debt Securities of a series having a variable rate of interest, which may be redeemed only on an interest payment date) at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption (other than outstanding original issue discount Debt Securities, which may be redeemed at the redemption price specified by the terms of each series of such Debt Securities). No notice of redemption may be given more than 90 days prior to the earliest date on which we would be obligated to pay the Additional Amounts or the tax would be imposed, as the case may be. Also, at the time that the notice of redemption is given, the obligation to pay Additional Amounts or tax, as the case may be, must be in effect.
 
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In addition, unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement with respect to any series of Debt Securities, if as the result of any change in or any amendment to the laws, including any regulations and any applicable double taxation treaty or convention, of the United Kingdom (or other jurisdiction of tax residence (other than the United States) of a successor entity to Carnival plc), or of any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities affecting taxation, or any change in an application or interpretation of those laws, which change, amendment, application or interpretation becomes effective on or after the original issuance date of the series of Debt Securities (or, in certain circumstances, the later date on which an entity becomes a successor entity to Carnival plc), we determine based upon an opinion of independent counsel of recognized standing that:

Carnival plc would be required to pay Guarantor Additional Amounts on the next succeeding date for the payment thereof (and such obligation could not be avoided by it taking reasonable measures available to it), or

any taxes would be imposed (whether by way of deduction, withholding or otherwise) by the United Kingdom (or the jurisdiction of tax residence (other than the United States) of a successor entity to Carnival plc) or by any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities, upon or with respect to any principal, premium, if any, interest, if any, or sinking fund or analogous payments, if any,
then we may, at our option, on giving not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ irrevocable notice, redeem the series of Debt Securities in whole, but not in part, at any time (other than Debt Securities of a series having a variable rate of interest, which may be redeemed only on an interest payment date) at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption (other than outstanding original issuance discount Debt Securities, which may be redeemed at the redemption price specified by the terms of each series of such Debt Securities). No notice of redemption may be given more than 90 days prior to the earliest date on which Carnival plc would be obligated to pay the Guarantor Additional Amounts or the tax would be imposed, as the case may be. Also, at the time that such notice of redemption is given, the obligation to pay the Guarantor Additional Amounts or tax, as the case may be, must be in effect.
Merger and Consolidation
Neither we nor Carnival plc, as guarantor of Debt Securities, can consolidate with or merge into any other person or transfer or lease all or substantially all of our assets substantially as an entirety to any person unless:

after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default (as defined below under “— Events of Default and Notice”), and no event which after notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing;

(i) in the case of our company, the successor or transferee entity, if other than us, expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, any premium on and interest on, all the outstanding Debt Securities and the performance of every covenant in the Indenture to be performed or observed by us and provides for conversion rights in accordance with applicable provisions of the Indenture and (ii) in the case of Carnival plc, the successor or transferee entity, if other than Carnival plc, expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, the performance of every covenant in the Indenture to be performed or observed by Carnival plc; and

we have delivered to the Trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each in the form required by the Indenture and stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance or transfer and such supplemental indenture complies with the foregoing provisions relating to such transaction.
 
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Events of Default and Notice
Unless otherwise noted in an applicable prospectus supplement or board resolution creating a particular series of Debt Securities, the following are “Events of Default” in respect of a particular series of Debt Securities:

failure to pay interest (including Additional Amounts) for 30 days after it is due;

failure to pay the principal or premium, if any, when due;

failure to make a sinking fund payment for five days after it becomes due;

failure to perform any other covenant for 60 days after being given written notice of the failure in accordance with the Indenture;

failure to pay when due the principal of, or acceleration of, any indebtedness for money borrowed by us in excess of $100 million, if the indebtedness is not discharged, or the acceleration is not annulled, within 30 days of us receiving written notice of the failure in accordance with the Indenture;

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization;

any Guarantee of such series ceasing to be in full force and effect as an enforceable instrument; and

any other Event of Default, as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If an Event of Default in respect of a particular series of Debt Securities outstanding occurs and is continuing, either the Trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Debt Securities outstanding of the series may declare the principal amount (or, if the Debt Securities of the series are original issue discount Debt Securities, the portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of the series) of all of the Debt Securities of the series to be due and payable immediately. At any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made, but before a judgment or decree for the payment of money due upon acceleration has been obtained by the Trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount outstanding of the Debt Securities of the affected series may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul the declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default relating to the Debt Securities of the series, other than the non-payment of principal due solely by the declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in the Indenture.
The Trustee will, within 90 days after a default in respect of a series of Debt Securities, give the holders of the series notice of all uncured defaults known to it (the term “default” includes the events specified above without grace periods). However, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, on or interest on any of the Debt Securities of the series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment with respect to the Debt Securities of the series, the Trustee may withhold such notice and will not be liable to holders for doing so, if the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the holders of the series.
Pursuant to the terms of the Indenture, we are required to furnish to the Trustee within 120 days of the end of our fiscal year a statement of certain of our officers stating whether or not to the best of their knowledge we are in default, in respect of any series of Debt Securities or in the performance and observance of the terms of the Indenture and, if we are in default, specifying the default and the nature of it.
The Indenture provides that the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all Debt Securities then outstanding of a particular series will have the right to waive certain defaults in respect of the series and, subject to certain limitations, to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceedings for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee. The Indenture provides that, in case an Event of Default in respect of a particular series of Debt Securities occurs (which is not cured or waived), the Trustee will be required to exercise such of its rights and powers under the Indenture, and to use the degree of care and skill in their exercise, that a prudent man would exercise or use in the conduct of his own affairs.
 
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Otherwise, the Trustee need only perform such duties as are specifically set forth in the Indenture. Subject to those provisions, the Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the Indenture at the request of any of the holders of the series unless they have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity.
No holder of any series of Debt Securities will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the Indenture or for any remedy under it, unless the holder has previously given to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default and unless the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of the series have made written request, and offered reasonable indemnity, to the Trustee to institute such a proceeding as trustee. In addition, the Trustee must not have received from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of the series a direction inconsistent with the request and have failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. However, such limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of a Debt Security for enforcement of payment of the principal of and premium, if any, or interest on the Debt Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Debt Security.
The Events of Default may be modified with respect to a series of Debt Securities. Any such modification will be described in a prospectus supplement.
Modification of the Indenture
With certain exceptions, we may modify the Indenture, our and Carnival plc’s rights and obligations, and the rights of the holders of a particular series, with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of that series. However, without the consent of each affected holder of each Debt Security of a series, no modification may be made which would:

change the stated maturity of the principal or premium, if any, of a Debt Security in the series;

change the stated maturity of the interest (including Additional Amounts) on any Debt Security in the series;

reduce the principal amount of a Debt Security in the series;

reduce the interest rate on any Debt Security in the series;

reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount Debt Security that is payable upon the acceleration of the maturity of the Security; or

amend or modify the terms of any of the Guarantees in a manner adverse to the holders.
In addition, the consent of the holders of all then outstanding Debt Securities of the series is required to reduce the percentage of holders of Debt Securities whose consent is required to modify the Indenture or adversely affect the right of holders of Debt Securities in any material respect to convert any Securities as provided in a supplemental indenture.
Satisfaction and Discharge
The Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of Debt Securities (except as to the obligation to pay any Additional Amounts and certain other obligations surviving rights of conversion or registration or transfer or exchange of Debt Securities of such series expressly provided for in the Indenture or in the form of Debt Security for such series) as to all outstanding Debt Securities of such series when:

either (a) all of the Debt Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than (i) Debt Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid and (ii) Debt Securities of such series for whose payment money in the required currency has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust and thereafter repaid to us or discharged from such trust) have been cancelled or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or
 
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(b) all such Debt Securities of that series not theretofore cancelled or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (i) have become due and payable, (ii) will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year or (iii) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee for giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of us, and we have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose an amount in the required currency sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such Debt Securities not therefore delivered to the Trustee canceled or for cancellation, for principal (and premium, if any) and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Debt Securities which have become due and payable), or to the stated maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by us with respect to the Debt Securities of such series; and

we have delivered to the Trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel each stating that all conditions precedent under the Indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the Indenture with respect to the Debt Securities of such series have been complied with.
Defeasance
The Indenture provides that we (and, to the extent applicable, Carnival plc), at our option,

will be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of any series of Debt Securities (except in each case for the obligation to pay any Additional Amounts and certain other obligations to register the transfer or exchange of Debt Securities, replace stolen, lost or mutilated senior Debt Securities, maintain paying agencies and hold moneys for payment in trust), or

need not comply with certain terms, provisions or conditions of such indenture and any restrictive covenants described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series of Debt Securities, Carnival plc will be released from the Guarantees and certain Events of Default (other than those arising out of the failure to pay interest or principal on the debt securities of a particular series and certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency and reorganization) will no longer constitute Events of Default with respect to such series of Debt Securities,
in each case if we deposit with the Trustee, in trust, money or the equivalent in securities of the government which issued the currency in which the Debt Securities are denominated or government agencies backed by the full faith and credit of such government, or a combination thereof, which through the payment of interest thereon and principal thereof in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay all the principal (including any mandatory sinking fund payments) of, and interest on, such series on the dates such payments are due in accordance with the terms of such series.
To exercise any such option, we are required, among other things, to deliver to the Trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the deposit and related defeasance would not cause the holders of such series to recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes and, in the case of a discharge pursuant to the first bullet above, accompanied by a ruling to such effect received from or published by the United States Internal Revenue Service.
In addition, we are required to deliver to the Trustee an officers’ certificate stating that such deposit was not made by us with the intent of preferring the holders over other creditors of ours or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors of ours or others.
Subordination
If our assets are distributed upon our dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any), and interest on, the Subordinated Debt Securities will be paid after, to the extent provided in the Subordinated Indenture and the applicable supplemental indenture, all senior indebtedness
 
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is paid in full, including Senior Debt Securities. Nevertheless, our obligation to pay principal (and premium, if any) or interest on the Subordinated Debt Securities will not otherwise be affected. We may not pay any principal (or premium, if any), sinking fund or interest on the Subordinated Debt Securities when we are in default in the payment of principal, premium, if any, sinking fund or interest on senior indebtedness. If, while we are in default on senior indebtedness, any payment is received by the Subordinated Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture or the holders of any of the Subordinated Debt Securities before we have paid all senior indebtedness in full, the payment or distribution must either be paid over to the holders of the unpaid senior indebtedness or applied to the repayment of the unpaid senior indebtedness. Until we have paid the senior indebtedness in full, the holders of the Subordinated Debt Securities will be subrogated to the rights of the holders of our senior indebtedness to the extent that payments are made to the holders of senior indebtedness out of the distributive share of the Subordinated Debt Securities.
Because of the way in which the subordination provisions operate, if our assets are distributed upon insolvency, certain of our and Carnival plc’s general creditors may recover more, ratably, than holders of Subordinated Debt Securities. The Subordinated Indenture or applicable supplemental indenture may state that its subordination provisions will not apply to money and securities held in trust under the satisfaction and discharge, and the legal defeasance, provisions of the Subordinated Indenture.
The subordination provisions also apply in the same way to the Guarantor with respect to the senior indebtedness of the Guarantor.
If this prospectus is being delivered in connection with the offering of a series of Subordinated Debt Securities, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated by reference in it will describe the approximate amount of senior indebtedness outstanding as of a recent date.
Optional Redemption
The terms and conditions, if any, on which Debt Securities being offered may be redeemed will be set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, on which Debt Securities being offered are convertible into our common stock or other of our securities will be set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement. The terms to be described will include the conversion price, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holder or us, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event that the Debt Securities are redeemed.
Trustee
The Trustee may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of Debt Securities, and a successor Trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that or those series. In the event that there are two or more persons acting as Trustee with respect to different series of Debt Securities, each Trustee will be a trustee of a trust or trusts under the Indenture that are separate and apart from the trust or trusts administered by any other Trustee, and any action permitted or required to be taken by the “Trustee” may be taken by each successor Trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the one or more series of Debt Securities for which that successor is acting as Trustee.
Governing Law
The Debt Securities, the Guarantees and the Indenture are governed by and will be construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES OF CARNIVAL PLC
Carnival plc may issue from time to time debt securities in one or more series that will consist of either senior debt (“PLC Senior Debt Securities”) or subordinated debt (“PLC Subordinated Debt Securities”). The PLC Senior Debt Securities will be issued under an indenture (the “PLC Senior Indenture”), to be entered into between Carnival plc, Carnival Corporation, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association (the “PLC Senior Trustee”), as the PLC Trustee. The PLC Subordinated Debt Securities will be issued under an indenture (the “PLC Subordinated Indenture”), to be entered into between Carnival plc, Carnival Corporation, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association (the “PLC Subordinated Trustee”), as the PLC Trustee. The term “PLC Indenture” refers to either the PLC Senior Indenture or the PLC Subordinated Indenture, as appropriate, the term “PLC Trustee” refers to either the PLC Senior Trustee or the PLC Subordinated Trustee, as appropriate, and the term “PLC Debt Securities” refers to the PLC Senior Debt Securities and the PLC Subordinated Debt Securities. Each PLC Indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
The following statements with respect to the PLC Debt Securities are not complete and are subject to the detailed provisions of the PLC Senior Indenture and the PLC Subordinated Indenture. Forms of these agreements are filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement.
The particular terms of each series of PLC Debt Securities (including any additions or modifications to the general terms of the PLC Debt Securities) will be described in a prospectus supplement that will be filed with the SEC. To review the terms of a particular series of PLC Debt Securities, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement for the particular series and to the description of PLC Debt Securities contained in this prospectus. There may be different trustees for one or more different series of PLC Debt Securities. See “— Trustee.”
General
The applicable prospectus supplement for a series of PLC Debt Securities to be issued will describe the following terms of the offered PLC Debt Securities:

the title;

the aggregate principal amount;

the percentage of their principal amount at which they will be offered;

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

the interest rate or rates and/or the method of determining the interest rates;

the dates from which interest, if any, will accrue, the method of determining those dates, and the dates on which interest is payable;

the terms for redemption, extension or early repayment;

the denominations in which the PLC Debt Securities are authorized to be issued (if other than denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple thereof);

the currency or currencies of payment of principal or interest;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

if it is an amount other than the principal amount of the PLC Debt Securities, the portion of the principal amount that will be payable if the maturity of the PLC Debt Securities is declared to be accelerated;

any other restrictive covenants included for the benefit of the holders of the PLC Debt Securities;

the events of default;
 
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whether the PLC Debt Securities are issuable as a global security or securities;

the applicable tax consequences related to the PLC Debt Securities;

the terms and conditions, if any, under which the PLC Debt Securities may be converted into or exchanged for our common stock or other securities;

the applicability of the provisions described in “— Defeasance” below;

any subordination provisions applicable to the PLC Debt Securities in addition to or different than those described under “— Subordination” below; and

any other term or provision which is not inconsistent with the PLC Indenture.
One or more series of PLC Debt Securities may be sold at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount, bearing no interest or interest at a rate which at the time of issuance is below market rates. Any applicable federal income tax consequences and special considerations will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Except as otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, will be payable at an office or agency to be maintained by Carnival plc, except that at Carnival plc’s option, interest may be paid by a check mailed to the person entitled to it.
The PLC Debt Securities will be issued only in fully registered form without coupons and may be presented for registration of transfer or exchange at the corporate trust office of the PLC Trustee. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of the PLC Debt Securities, but Carnival plc may require payment of a sum to cover any tax or other governmental charge that must be paid in connection with the transfer or exchange. Not all PLC Debt Securities of any one series need be issued at the same time, and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened for issuances of additional PLC Debt Securities of that series.
The PLC Indenture does not contain any covenants or provisions that are specifically intended to give holders of the PLC Debt Securities protection if Carnival plc undertakes a highly leveraged transaction. With respect to any series of PLC Debt Securities, the existence or non-existence of such covenants or provisions will be disclosed in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Guarantees of Debt Securities
Carnival Corporation will guarantee Carnival plc’s PLC Debt Securities under the PLC Guarantees (as defined below), which will be contained in the applicable PLC Indenture. Carnival Corporation, as obligor, will irrevocably, unconditionally and absolutely guarantee, jointly and severally and on a continuing basis, to each holder of the PLC Debt Securities and to the applicable PLC Trustee and its successors and assigns, as and for Carnival Corporation’s own debt, until final and indefeasible payment of the amounts referred to in clause (a) have been made: (a) the due and punctual payment of principal and interest, and, if applicable, PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts (as defined below under “— Payment of PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts”) (if any), on the PLC Debt Securities when due, whether at maturity, by acceleration, by redemption or otherwise, and all other monetary obligations of Carnival plc under the PLC Indentures (including obligations applicable to the PLC Trustee) and the PLC Debt Securities; and (b) the punctual and faithful performance, keeping, observance and fulfillment by Carnival plc of all duties, agreements, covenants and obligations of Carnival plc under the PLC Indentures and the PLC Debt Securities (the obligations set forth in clauses (a) and (b), collectively, the “PLC Guarantees”). Such PLC Guarantees will constitute guarantees of payment and not merely of collection. The obligations of Carnival Corporation under the PLC Indentures will be immediate and not contingent upon the exercise or enforcement by any holder of PLC Debt Securities or other person. The PLC Guarantees will be governed by New York law.
 
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Book-Entry System
The PLC Debt Securities of a series may be issued in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with a depository or with a nominee for the Depository identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, and will be registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of it. In such a case one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the aggregate principal amount of all the PLC Debt Securities of the series to be represented by the global security or securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for PLC Debt Securities in definitive certificated form, a global security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depository for that series, or to a successor Depository for that series selected or approved by us, or to a nominee of that successor Depository.
The specific depository arrangement with respect to any series of PLC Debt Securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Payment of PLC Additional Amounts
Carnival plc will agree that any amounts payable on the PLC Debt Securities will be paid without deduction or withholding for any and all present and future taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges whatsoever imposed, assessed, levied or collected by or for the account of (i)(x) the United Kingdom or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or (y) the jurisdiction of tax residence (other than the United States, or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) of a successor entity to Carnival plc, to the extent that such taxes, levies, imports or other governmental charges first become applicable as a result of such successor entity becoming the obligor on the PLC Debt Securities, or (ii) any other jurisdiction (other than the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) from or through which any amount is paid by Carnival plc under the PLC Indenture or where it is resident or maintains a place of business or permanent establishment (each jurisdiction described in clauses (i) and (ii) above is referred to herein as a “PLC Taxing Jurisdiction” and such taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges are referred to as “PLC Taxes”), unless the withholding or deduction of such PLC Tax is compelled by laws of the United Kingdom, or any other applicable PLC Taxing Jurisdiction. If any deduction or withholding of any PLC Taxes (other than PLC Excluded Taxes, as defined below) is ever required by the United Kingdom or any other PLC Taxing Jurisdiction, Carnival plc will (if the holders or beneficial owners of the relevant PLC Debt Securities comply with any applicable administrative requirements) pay such additional amounts (“PLC Additional Amounts”) required to make the net amounts paid to each Holder of PLC Debt Securities or the PLC Trustee pursuant to the terms of the PLC Indenture or the PLC Debt Securities, after such deduction or withholding, equal to the amounts then due and payable under the terms of the PLC Indenture or the PLC Debt Securities. However, Carnival plc shall not be required to pay PLC Additional Amounts in respect of the following PLC Taxes (“PLC Excluded Taxes”):

any present or future PLC Taxes imposed, assessed, levied or collected as a result of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant PLC Debt Security (i) being organized under the laws of, or otherwise being or having been a domiciliary, national or resident of, (ii) being engaged or having been engaged in a trade or business in, (iii) having or having had its principal office located in, (iv) maintaining or having maintained a permanent establishment in, (v) being or having been physically present in, or (vi) otherwise having or having had some connection (other than the connection arising from holding or owning the relevant PLC Debt Security, or collecting principal and interest, if any, on, or the enforcement of, such PLC Debt Security) with the United Kingdom or any other applicable PLC Taxing Jurisdiction;

any present or future PLC Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the fact that, where presentation is required, the relevant PLC Debt Security was presented more than thirty days after the date the payment became due or was provided for, whichever is later;

any present or future PLC Taxes imposed under Sections 1471-1474 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, or any present or future PLC Taxes imposed under comparable provisions of non-United States tax law;
 
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any present or future PLC Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the failure to comply with any certification, identification or other report concerning the nationality, residence, identity or connection with the United Kingdom or any other applicable PLC Taxing Jurisdiction of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant PLC Debt Security or claim for relief or exemption, if making such a certification, identification, other report or claim is, under the laws, rules or regulations of any such jurisdiction, a condition to relief or exemption from PLC Taxes;

any present or future PLC Taxes imposed on a payment to a holder and required to be made pursuant to any law implementing European Council Directive 2003/48/EC or any other directive implementing the conclusions of the ECOFIN Council meeting of 26 – 27 November 2000 or any law implementing or complying with, or introduced in order to conform to, such directive;

any present or future PLC Taxes imposed on a payment to, or with respect to, a holder who would have been able to avoid such PLC Taxes by presenting the relevant PLC Debt Security to a paying agent in a member state of the European Union;

any estate, inheritance, gift, sale, transfer, personal property or similar PLC Tax or duty; or

any combination of the foregoing;
provided further, that no such PLC Additional Amounts shall be payable in respect of any PLC Debt Security held by (x) any holder or beneficial owner that is not the sole beneficial owner of such PLC Debt Security, or that is a fiduciary, partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, but only to the extent that a beneficiary or settlor with respect to the fiduciary or a beneficial owner, partner or member of the partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, would not have been entitled to such PLC Additional Amounts had the beneficiary, settlor, beneficial owner, partner or member been the direct holder of such PLC Debt Security, (y) any holder that is not a resident of the United States to the extent that, had such holder been a resident of the United States and eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the United States, and the applicable PLC Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the PLC Indenture and the PLC Debt Security, such holder would not have been entitled to such PLC Additional Amounts, or (z) any holder that is a resident of the United States but that is not eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the United States and the applicable PLC Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the PLC Indenture and the PLC Debt Security (but only to the extent the amount of such deduction or withholding exceeds that which would have been required had such holder of a PLC Debt Security been so eligible and made all relevant claims).
Carnival plc or any successor to it, as the case may be, will indemnify and hold harmless each holder of PLC Debt Securities and upon written request reimburse each holder for the amount of:

any PLC Taxes levied or imposed and paid by such holder of PLC Debt Securities (other than PLC Excluded Taxes) as a result of payments made with respect to such PLC Debt Securities.

any liability (including penalties, interest and expenses) arising therefrom with respect thereto; and

any PLC Taxes (other than PLC Excluded Taxes) with respect to payment of PLC Additional Amounts or any reimbursement pursuant to this list;
in each case, to the extent not otherwise reimbursed by the payment of any PLC Additional Amount and not excluded from the requirement to pay PLC Additional Amounts, as described above.
Carnival plc or its successor, as the case may be, will also:

make such withholding or deduction to the extent required by applicable law; and

remit the full amount deducted or withheld to the relevant authority in accordance with applicable law.
Carnival plc or any successor to it, as the case may be, will furnish the PLC Trustee within 30 days after the date the payment of any such PLC Taxes is due pursuant to applicable law, certified copies of tax receipts
 
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evidencing the payment by Carnival plc or any successor to it, as the case may be, or other evidence of such payment reasonably satisfactory to the PLC Trustee.
At least 30 days prior to each date on which any payment under or with respect to the PLC Debt Securities is due and payable by Carnival plc under the PLC Debt Securities, if Carnival plc will be obligated to pay PLC Additional Amounts with respect to those payments, Carnival plc will deliver to the PLC Trustee an officers’ certificate stating that PLC Additional Amounts will be payable, stating the amounts that will be payable, and setting forth any other information necessary to enable the PLC Trustee to pay the PLC Additional Amounts to holders of the PLC Debt Securities on the payment date.
Each holder of the PLC Debt Securities, by acceptance of the PLC Debt Securities, agrees that, with reasonable promptness after receiving written notice from Carnival plc to the effect that such holder is eligible for a refund in respect of PLC Taxes actually paid by Carnival plc, such holder will sign and deliver, as reasonably directed by Carnival plc, any form provided to such by Carnival plc to enable such holder to obtain a refund in respect of such PLC Taxes; and if such holder thereafter receives such refund in respect of such PLC Taxes, such holder will promptly pay such refund to Carnival plc (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority). If a holder applies for a refund of such PLC Taxes prior to a request by Carnival plc to apply for such a refund, the holder will, upon receipt of a request by Carnival plc to apply for, or to turn over the proceeds of, any such refund, pay any such refund to Carnival plc (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority), promptly upon receipt of such refund. Carnival plc shall pay all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by a holder in connection with obtaining such refund.
Carnival Corporation, the guarantor of the PLC Debt Securities, will agree to make with respect to the PLC Indenture and the PLC Debt Securities, all such payments to be paid without deduction or withholding for any and all present and future taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges imposed, assessed, levied or collected by or for the account of (i)(x) the Republic of Panama or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or (y) the jurisdiction of incorporation (other than the U.S. or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) of a successor entity to Carnival Corporation, to the extent that such taxes, levies, imports or other governmental charges first become applicable as a result of such successor entity becoming the obligor on the PLC Guarantees, or (ii) any other jurisdiction (other than the U.S. or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof) from or through which any amount is paid by Carnival Corporation with respect to the PLC Debt Securities or where Carnival Corporation is resident or maintains a place of business or permanent establishment (each jurisdiction described in clauses (i) and (ii) above is referred to herein as a “PLC Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction” and such taxes, levies, imposts or other governmental charges are referred to as “Corp. Taxes”), unless the withholding or deduction of such Tax is compelled by laws of the Republic of Panama or any other applicable PLC Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction. If any deduction or withholding of any Corp. Taxes (other than Corp. Excluded Taxes, as defined below) is ever required by the Republic of Panama or any other PLC Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction, Carnival Corporation will (if the holders or beneficial owners of the relevant PLC Debt Securities comply with any applicable administrative requirements) pay any additional amounts (“PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts”) required to make the net amounts paid to each holder of the PLC Debt Securities or the PLC Trustee pursuant to the terms of the PLC Indenture or the PLC Debt Securities after such deduction or withholding equal to the amounts then due and payable under the terms of the PLC Indenture or the PLC Debt Securities. However, Carnival Corporation will not be required to pay PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts in respect of the following Corp. Taxes (“Corp. Excluded Taxes”):

any present or future Corp. Taxes imposed, assessed, levied or collected as a result of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant PLC Debt Security (i) being organized under the laws of, or otherwise being or having been a domiciliary, national or resident of, (ii) being engaged or having been engaged in a trade or business in, (iii) having or having had its principal office located in, (iv) maintaining or having maintained a permanent establishment in, (v) being or having been physically present in, or (vi) otherwise having or having had some connection (other than the connection arising from holding
 
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or owning a PLC Debt Security, or collecting principal and interest, if any, on, or the enforcement of, a PLC Debt Security) with the Republic of Panama or any other applicable PLC Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction;

any present or future Corp. Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the fact that, where presentation is required, the relevant PLC Debt Security was presented more than thirty days after the date the payment became due or was provided for, whichever is later;

any present or future Corp. Taxes imposed under Sections 1471-1474 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, or any present or future Corp. Taxes imposed under comparable provisions of non-United States tax law;

any present or future Corp. Taxes which would not have been so imposed, assessed, levied or collected but for the failure to comply with any certification, identification or other report concerning the nationality, residence, identity or connection with the Republic of Panama or any other applicable PLC Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction of the holder or beneficial owner of the relevant PLC Debt Security, or claim for relief or exemption, if making such a certification, identification, other report or claim is, under the laws, rules or regulations of any such jurisdiction, as a condition to relief or exemption from Corp. Taxes;

any estate, inheritance, gift, sale, transfer, personal property or similar Corp. Tax or duty; or

any combination of the foregoing
provided further, that no such PLC Guarantees Additional Amounts will be payable in respect of any PLC Debt Security held by (x) any holder or beneficial owner that is not the sole beneficial owner of such PLC Debt Security, or that is a fiduciary, partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, but only to the extent that a beneficiary or settlor with respect to the fiduciary or a beneficial owner, partner or member of the partnership, limited liability company or other fiscally transparent entity, would not have been entitled to such PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts had the beneficiary, settlor, beneficial owner, partner or member been the direct holder of such PLC Debt Security, (y) any holder that is not a resident of the U.S. to the extent that, had such holder been a resident of the U.S. and eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the U.S. and the applicable PLC Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the PLC Indenture and the PLC Debt Securities, such holder would not have been entitled to such PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts, or (z) any holder that is resident of the U.S. but that is not eligible for the benefit of any double taxation treaty between the U.S. and the applicable PLC Guarantor Taxing Jurisdiction in relation to payments of amounts due under the PLC Indenture and the PLC Debt Securities (but only to the extent the amount of such deduction or withholding exceeds that which would have been required had such holder of a PLC Debt Security been so eligible and made all relevant claims).
Carnival Corporation or any successor to it, as the case may be, will indemnify and hold harmless each holder of the PLC Debt Securities and upon written request reimburse each holder for the amount of:

any Corp. Taxes levied or imposed and paid by the holder of a PLC Debt Security (other than Corp. Excluded Taxes) as a result of payments made with respect to such PLC Debt Security;

any liability (including penalties, interest and expenses) arising therefrom with respect thereto; and

any Corp. Taxes (other than Corp. Excluded Taxes) with respect to payment of PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts or any reimbursement pursuant to this list.
Carnival Corporation or its successor, as the case may be, will also:

make such withholding or deduction, to the extent required by applicable law; and

remit the full amount deducted or withheld, to the relevant authority in accordance with applicable law.
 
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Carnival Corporation or any successor to it, as the case may be, will furnish the PLC Trustee within 30 days after the date the payment of any such Corp. Taxes is due pursuant to applicable law, certified copies of tax receipts evidencing the payment by Carnival Corporation or any successor to it, as the case may be, or other evidence of such payment reasonably satisfactory to the PLC Trustee.
At least 30 days prior to each date on which any payment under or with respect to the PLC Debt Securities is due and payable, if Carnival Corporation will be obligated to pay PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts with respect to those payments, Carnival Corporation shall deliver to the PLC Trustee an officers’ certificate stating that such PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts will be payable, stating the amounts that will be payable, and setting forth any other information necessary to enable the PLC Trustee to pay the PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts to holders of the PLC Debt Securities on the payment date.
Each holder of a PLC Debt Security, by acceptance of such PLC Debt Security, agrees that, with reasonable promptness after receiving Carnival Corporation’s written notice to the effect that such holder is eligible for a refund in respect of Corp. Taxes actually paid by Carnival Corporation under the terms of the PLC Debt Security or the PLC Indenture, such holder will sign and deliver to Carnival Corporation, as reasonably directed by Carnival Corporation, any form Carnival Corporation provides to such holder to enable such holder to obtain a refund in respect of such Corp. Taxes; and if such holder thereafter receives such refund in respect of such Corp. Taxes, such holder will promptly pay such refund to Carnival Corporation (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority). If a holder applies for a refund of such Corp. Taxes prior to Carnival Corporation’s request to apply for such a refund, the holder will, upon receipt of our request to apply for, or to turn over the proceeds of, any such refund, pay any such refund to Carnival Corporation (together with interest, if any, received by such holder from the relevant taxing authority), promptly upon receipt of such refund. Carnival Corporation will pay all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by a holder in connection with obtaining such refund.
Redemption of Debt Securities under Certain Circumstances
Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement with respect to any series of PLC Debt Securities, if as the result of any change in or any amendment to the laws, including any regulations and any applicable double taxation treaty or convention, of the United Kingdom (or the jurisdiction of incorporation (other than the U.S) of a successor entity to Carnival plc), or of any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities affecting taxation, or any change in an application or interpretation of those laws, which change, amendment, application or interpretation becomes effective on or after the original issuance date of the series of PLC Debt Securities (or, in certain circumstances, the later date on which an entity becomes a successor entity to us), Carnival plc determines based upon an opinion of independent counsel of recognized standing that:

Carnival plc would be required to pay PLC Additional Amounts on the next succeeding date for the payment thereof (and such obligation could not be avoided by it taking reasonable measures available to it), or

any taxes would be imposed (whether by way of deduction, withholding or otherwise) by the United Kingdom (or the jurisdiction of tax residence (other than the U.S.) of a successor entity to Carnival plc) or by any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities, upon or with respect to any principal, premium, if any, interest, if any, or sinking fund or analogous payments, if any,
then Carnival plc may, at its option, on giving not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ irrevocable notice, redeem the series of PLC Debt Securities in whole at any time (other than PLC Debt Securities of a series having a variable rate of interest, which may be redeemed only on an interest payment date) at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption (other than outstanding original issue discount PLC Debt Securities, which may be redeemed at the redemption price specified by the terms of each series of such PLC Debt Securities). No notice of redemption may be given more than 90 days prior to the earliest date on which Carnival plc would be obligated to pay the PLC Additional Amounts or the tax
 
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would be imposed, as the case may be. Also, at the time that the notice of redemption is given, the obligation to pay PLC Additional Amounts or tax, as the case may be, must be in effect.
In addition, unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement with respect to any series of PLC Debt Securities, if as the result of any change in or any amendment to the laws, including any regulations and any applicable double taxation treaty or convention, of the Republic of Panama (or other jurisdiction of incorporation (other than the United States) of a successor entity to Carnival Corporation), or of any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities affecting taxation, or any change in an application or interpretation of those laws, which change, amendment, application or interpretation becomes effective on or after the original issuance date of the series of PLC Debt Securities (or, in certain circumstances, the later date on which an entity becomes a successor entity to Carnival Corporation), we determine based upon an opinion of independent counsel of recognized standing that:

Carnival Corporation would be required to pay PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts on the next succeeding date for the payment thereof (and such obligation could not be avoided by it taking reasonable measures available to it), or

any taxes would be imposed (whether by way of deduction, withholding or otherwise) by the Republic of Panama (or the jurisdiction of incorporation (other than the United States) of a successor entity to Carnival Corporation) or by any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities, upon or with respect to any principal, premium, if any, interest, if any, or sinking fund or analogous payments, if any,
then Carnival plc may, at its option, on giving not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ irrevocable notice, redeem the series of PLC Debt Securities in whole, but not in part, at any time (other than PLC Debt Securities of a series having a variable rate of interest, which may be redeemed only on an interest payment date) at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption (other than outstanding original issuance discount PLC Debt Securities, which may be redeemed at the redemption price specified by the terms of each series of such PLC Debt Securities). No notice of redemption may be given more than 90 days prior to the earliest date on which Carnival Corporation would be obligated to pay the PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts or the tax would be imposed, as the case may be. Also, at the time that such notice of redemption is given, the obligation to pay the PLC Guarantor Additional Amounts or tax, as the case may be, must be in effect
Merger and Consolidation
Neither Carnival plc nor Carnival Corporation, as guarantor of PLC Debt Securities, can consolidate with or merge into any other person or transfer or lease all or substantially all of its assets substantially as an entirety to any person unless:

after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default (as defined below under “— Events of Default and Notice”), and no event which after notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing;

(i) in the case of Carnival plc, the successor or transferee entity, if other than Carnival plc, expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the PLC Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the PLC Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, any premium on and interest on, all the outstanding PLC Debt Securities and the performance of every covenant in the PLC Indenture to be performed or observed by Carnival plc and provides for conversion rights in accordance with applicable provisions of the PLC Indenture and (ii) in the case of Carnival Corporation, the successor or transferee entity, if other than Carnival Corporation, expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the PLC Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the PLC Trustee, the performance of every covenant in the PLC Indenture to be performed or observed by Carnival Corporation; and

Carnival plc has delivered to the PLC Trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each in the form required by the PLC Indenture and stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance or transfer and such supplemental indenture complies with the foregoing provisions relating to such transaction.
 
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Events of Default and Notice
Unless otherwise noted in an applicable prospectus supplement or board resolution creating a particular series of Debt Securities, the following are “Events of Default” in respect of a particular series of Debt Securities:

failure to pay interest (including PLC Additional Amounts) for 30 days after it is due;

failure to pay the principal or premium, if any, when due;

failure to make a sinking fund payment for five days after it becomes due;

failure to perform any other covenant for 60 days after being given written notice of the failure in accordance with the Indenture;

failure to pay when due the principal of, or acceleration of, any indebtedness for money borrowed by Carnival plc or Carnival Corporation in excess of $100 million, if the indebtedness is not discharged, or the acceleration is not annulled, within 30 days of Carnival plc receiving written notice of the failure in accordance with the PLC Indenture;

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization;

any PLC Guarantee of such series ceasing to be in full force and effect as an enforceable instrument; and

any other Event of Default, as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If an Event of Default in respect of a particular series of PLC Debt Securities outstanding occurs and is continuing, either the PLC Trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the PLC Debt Securities outstanding of the series may declare the principal amount (or, if the PLC Debt Securities of the series are original issue discount PLC Debt Securities, the portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of the series) of all of the PLC Debt Securities of the series to be due and payable immediately. At any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made, but before a judgment or decree for the payment of money due upon acceleration has been obtained by the PLC Trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount outstanding of the PLC Debt Securities of the affected series may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul the declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default relating to the PLC Debt Securities of the series, other than the non-payment of principal due solely by the declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in the PLC Indenture.
The PLC Trustee will, within 90 days after a default in respect of a series of PLC Debt Securities, give the holders of the series notice of all uncured defaults known to it (the term “default” includes the events specified above without grace periods). However, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, on or interest on any of the PLC Debt Securities of the series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment with respect to the PLC Debt Securities of the series, the PLC Trustee may withhold such notice and will not be liable to holders for doing so, if the PLC Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the holders of the series.
Pursuant to the terms of the PLC Indenture, Carnival plc is required to furnish to the PLC Trustee within 120 days of the end of Carnival plc’s fiscal year a statement of certain of Carnival plc’s officers stating whether or not to the best of their knowledge Carnival plc is in default, in respect of any series of PLC Debt Securities or in the performance and observance of the terms of the PLC Indenture and, if Carnival plc is in default, specifying the default and the nature of it.
The PLC Indenture provides that the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all PLC Debt Securities then outstanding of a particular series will have the right to waive certain defaults in respect of the series and, subject to certain limitations, to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceedings for
 
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any remedy available to the PLC Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the PLC Trustee. The PLC Indenture provides that, in case an Event of Default in respect of a particular series of PLC Debt Securities occurs (which is not cured or waived), the PLC Trustee will be required to exercise such of its rights and powers under the PLC Indenture, and to use the degree of care and skill in their exercise, that a prudent man would exercise or use in the conduct of his own affairs. Otherwise, the PLC Trustee need only perform such duties as are specifically set forth in the PLC Indenture. Subject to those provisions, the PLC Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the PLC Indenture at the request of any of the holders of the series unless they have offered to the PLC Trustee reasonable security or indemnity.
No holder of any series of PLC Debt Securities will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the PLC Indenture or for any remedy under it, unless the holder has previously given to the PLC Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default and unless the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding PLC Debt Securities of the series have made written request, and offered reasonable indemnity, to the PLC Trustee to institute such a proceeding as trustee. In addition, the PLC Trustee must not have received from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding PLC Debt Securities of the series a direction inconsistent with the request and have failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. However, such limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of a PLC Debt Security for enforcement of payment of the principal of and premium, if any, or interest on the PLC Debt Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in the PLC Debt Security.
The Events of Default may be modified with respect to a series of PLC Debt Securities. Any such modification will be described in a prospectus supplement.
Modification of the Indenture
With certain exceptions, Carnival plc may modify the PLC Indenture, its and Carnival Corporation’s rights and obligations, and the rights of the holders of a particular series, with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding PLC Debt Securities of that series. However, without the consent of each affected holder of each PLC Debt Security of a series, no modification may be made which would:

change the stated maturity of the principal or premium, if any, of a PLC Debt Security in the series;

change the stated maturity of the interest (including PLC Additional Amounts) on any PLC Debt Security in the series;

reduce the principal amount of a PLC Debt Security in the series;

reduce the interest rate on any PLC Debt Security in the series;

reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount PLC Debt Security that is payable upon the acceleration of the maturity of the Security; or

amend or modify the terms of any of the PLC Guarantees in a manner adverse to the holders.
In addition, the consent of the holders of all then outstanding PLC Debt Securities of the series is required to reduce the percentage of holders of PLC Debt Securities whose consent is required to modify the PLC Indenture or adversely affect the right of holders of PLC Debt Securities in any material respect to convert any Securities as provided in a supplemental indenture.
Satisfaction and Discharge
The PLC Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of PLC Debt Securities (except as to the obligation to pay any Additional Amounts and certain other obligations, surviving rights of conversion or registration or transfer or exchange of PLC Debt Securities of such series expressly provided for in
 
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the PLC Indenture or in the form of PLC Debt Security for such series) as to all outstanding PLC Debt Securities of such series when:

either (a) all of the PLC Debt Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than (i) PLC Debt Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid and (ii) PLC Debt Securities of such series for whose payment money in the required currency has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust and thereafter repaid to Carnival plc or discharged from such trust) have been cancelled or delivered to the PLC Trustee for cancellation or (b) all such PLC Debt Securities of that series not theretofore cancelled or delivered to the PLC Trustee for cancellation (i) have become due and payable, (ii) will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year or (iii) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements reasonably satisfactory to the PLC Trustee for giving of notice of redemption by the PLC Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of Carnival plc, and Carnival plc has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the PLC Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose an amount in the required currency sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such PLC Debt Securities not therefore delivered to the PLC Trustee canceled or for cancellation, for principal (and premium, if any) and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of PLC Debt Securities which have become due and payable), or to the stated maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

Carnival plc has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by us with respect to the PLC Debt Securities of such series; and

Carnival plc has delivered to the PLC Trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel each stating that all conditions precedent under the PLC Indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the PLC Indenture with respect to the PLC Debt Securities of such series have been complied with.
Defeasance
Each PLC Indenture provides that Carnival plc (and, to the extent applicable, Carnival Corporation), at our option,

will be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of any series of PLC Debt Securities (except in each case for the obligation to pay any Additional Amounts and certain other obligations to register the transfer or exchange of PLC Debt Securities, replace stolen, lost or mutilated senior PLC Debt Securities, maintain paying agencies and hold moneys for payment in trust), or

need not comply with certain terms, provisions or conditions of the PLC Indentures and any restrictive covenants described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series of PLC Debt Securities, Carnival Corporation will be released from the PLC Guarantees and certain Events of Default (other than those arising out of the failure to pay interest or principal on the PLC Debt Securities of a particular series and certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency and reorganization) will no longer constitute Events of Default with respect to such series of PLC Debt Securities,
in each case if we deposit with the PLC Trustee, in trust, money or the equivalent in securities of the government which issued the currency in which the PLC Debt Securities are denominated or government agencies backed by the full faith and credit of such government, or a combination thereof, which through the payment of interest thereon and principal thereof in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay all the principal (including any mandatory sinking fund payments) of, and interest on, such series on the dates such payments are due in accordance with the terms of such series.
To exercise any such option, Carnival plc is required, among other things, to deliver to the PLC Trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the deposit and related defeasance would not cause the holders of such series to recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes and, in the case of a discharge pursuant to the first bullet above, accompanied by a ruling to such effect received from or published by the United States Internal Revenue Service.
 
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In addition, Carnival plc is required to deliver to the PLC Trustee an officers’ certificate stating that such deposit was not made by us with the intent of preferring the holders over other creditors of ours or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors of ours or others.
Subordination
If Carnival plc’s assets are distributed upon its dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any), and interest on, the PLC Subordinated Debt Securities will be paid after, to the extent provided in the PLC Subordinated Indenture and the applicable supplemental indenture, all senior indebtedness is paid in full, including PLC Senior Debt Securities. Nevertheless, Carnival plc’s obligation to pay principal (and premium, if any) or interest on the PLC Subordinated Debt Securities will not otherwise be affected. Carnival plc may not pay any principal (or premium, if any), sinking fund or interest on the PLC Subordinated Debt Securities when Carnival plc is in default in the payment of principal, premium, if any, sinking fund or interest on senior indebtedness. If, while Carnival plc is in default on senior indebtedness, any payment is received by the PLC Subordinated Trustee under the PLC Subordinated Indenture or the holders of any of the PLC Subordinated Debt Securities before Carnival plc has paid all senior indebtedness in full, the payment or distribution must either be paid over to the holders of the unpaid senior indebtedness or applied to the repayment of the unpaid senior indebtedness. Until Carnival plc has paid the senior indebtedness in full, the holders of the PLC Subordinated Debt Securities will be subrogated to the rights of the holders of Carnival plc’s senior indebtedness to the extent that payments are made to the holders of senior indebtedness out of the distributive share of the PLC Subordinated Debt Securities.
Because of the way in which the subordination provisions operate, if Carnival plc’s assets are distributed upon insolvency, certain of Carnival plc’s and Carnival Corporation’s general creditors may recover more, ratably, than holders of PLC Subordinated Debt Securities. The PLC Subordinated Indenture or applicable supplemental indenture may state that its subordination provisions will not apply to money and securities held in trust under the satisfaction and discharge, and the legal defeasance, provisions of the PLC Subordinated Indenture.
The subordination provisions also apply in the same way to the Guarantor with respect to the senior indebtedness of the Guarantor.
If this prospectus is being delivered in connection with the offering of a series of PLC Subordinated Debt Securities, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated by reference in it will describe the approximate amount of senior indebtedness outstanding as of a recent date.
Optional Redemption
The terms and conditions, if any, on which PLC Debt Securities being offered may be redeemed will be set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement.
Trustee
The PLC Trustee may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of PLC Debt Securities, and a successor PLC Trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that or those series. In the event that there are two or more persons acting as PLC Trustee with respect to different series of PLC Debt Securities, each PLC Trustee will be a trustee of a trust or trusts under the PLC Indenture that are separate and apart from the trust or trusts administered by any other PLC Trustee, and any action permitted or required to be taken by the “Trustee” may be taken by each successor PLC Trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the one or more series of PLC Debt Securities for which that successor is acting as PLC Trustee.
Governing Law
The PLC Debt Securities, the PLC Guarantees and the PLC Indenture are governed by and will be construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants (the “Warrants”) for the purchase of our common stock, preferred stock or Debt Securities, Warrants to purchase or sell debt securities of or guaranteed by the U.S. (“Government Debt Securities”), Warrants to purchase or sell foreign currencies, currency units or units of a currency index or currency basket, Warrants to purchase or sell units of a stock index or a stock basket and Warrants to purchase or sell a commodity or a commodity index. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any Securities offered by any prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from those Securities. The Warrants will be settled either through physical delivery or through payment of a cash settlement value as described in this prospectus and in any applicable prospectus supplement. The Warrants will be issued under warrant agreements (each a “Warrant Agreement”) to be entered into with a bank or trust company, as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”), all as set forth in the relevant prospectus supplement. The Warrant Agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the Warrant certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of Warrant certificates or beneficial owners of Warrants. The following summaries of certain provisions of the forms of Warrant Agreement are not complete and are qualified by reference to the provisions of the forms of Warrant Agreement (including the forms of Warrant certificates), copies of which will be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement (or incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement).
The particular terms of any Warrants (including any modification or additions to the general terms of the Warrants) will be described in a prospectus supplement that will be filed with the SEC. To review the terms of any particular Warrants, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to such Warrants and to the description of the Warrants in this prospectus.
General
A prospectus supplement will describe the following terms of any Warrants (to the extent such terms are applicable to the Warrants):

their title;

their aggregate number;

whether the Warrants are for the purchase or sale of our common stock, preferred stock, Debt Securities, Government Debt Securities, currencies, currency units, composite currencies, currency indices or currency baskets, stock indices, stock baskets, commodities, commodity indices or any other index or reference as described in the prospectus supplement;

their price or prices;

the currency or currencies, including composite currencies or currency units, in which the price of the Warrants may be payable;

the date, if any, on and after which the Warrants and the related common stock, preferred stock, or Debt Securities will be separately transferable;

the date on which the right to exercise the Warrants shall commence, and the date on which the right shall expire;

the maximum or minimum number of the Warrants which may be exercised at any time;

a discussion of material federal income tax considerations, if any;

the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exercise of the Warrants; and

any other terms of the Warrants, including any terms which may be required or advisable under U.S. laws or regulations.
If the Warrants are to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the prospectus supplement will also describe the purchase price for the underlying common stock or preferred stock.
 
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If the Warrants are to purchase Debt Securities, the prospectus supplement will also describe:

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency, currency unit, composite currency or currency basket of denomination and other terms of the Debt Securities purchasable upon exercise of the Warrants;

the designation and terms of the Debt Securities with which the Warrants are issued and the number of Warrants issued with each such Debt Security;

the date on and after which the Warrants and the related Debt Securities will be separately transferable, if any; and

the principal amount of Debt Securities purchasable upon exercise of each Warrant and the price at which and currency, currency unit, composite currency or currency basket in which the principal amount of Debt Securities may be purchased upon exercise.
If the Warrants are to purchase or sell Government Debt Securities or a foreign currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket, the Warrants will be listed on a national securities exchange and the prospectus supplement will describe the amount and designation of the Government Debt Securities or currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket, as the case may be, subject to each Warrant, whether the Warrants are to purchase or sell the Government Debt Securities, foreign currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket, whether the Warrants provide for cash settlement or delivery of the Government Debt Securities or foreign currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket upon exercise, and the national securities exchange on which the Warrants will be listed.
If the Warrants are to purchase or sell a stock index or a stock basket, the Warrants will provide for payment of an amount in cash determined by reference to increases or decreases in that stock index or stock basket and will be listed on a national securities exchange, and the prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the Warrants, whether the Warrants are to purchase or sell the stock index or stock basket, the stock index or stock basket covered by the Warrants and the market to which the stock index or stock basket relates, whether the Warrants are to purchase or sell the stock index or stock basket and the national securities exchange on which the Warrants will be listed.
If the Warrants are to purchase or sell a commodity or commodity index, the Warrants will provide for cash settlement or delivery of the particular commodity or commodities, and the Warrants will be listed on a national securities exchange. The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the Warrants, the commodity or commodity index covered by the Warrants, whether the Warrants are to purchase or sell the commodity or commodity index, whether the Warrants provide for cash settlement or delivery of the commodity or commodity index, the market, if any, to which the commodity or commodity index relates and the national securities exchange on which the Warrants will be listed.
Warrant certificates may be exchanged for new Warrant certificates of different denominations, may be presented for registration of transfer, and may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement. Warrants to purchase or sell Government Debt Securities or a foreign currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket, and Warrants to purchase stock indices or stock baskets or commodities or commodity indices, may be issued in the form of a single global warrant certificate, registered in the name of the nominee of the depository of the Warrants, or may initially be issued in the form of definitive certificates that may be exchanged, on a fixed date, or on a date or dates we select, for interests in a global warrant certificate, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Prior to the exercise of their Warrants, holders of Warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or Debt Securities will, until their Warrants are exercised, not have any of the rights of holders of such Securities.
 
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Exercise of Warrants
Each Warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the amount of common stock, preferred stock or Debt Securities, or purchase or sell the amount of Government Debt Securities, or the amount of currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket, stock index or stock basket, commodity or commodities, at the exercise price, or receive the settlement value in respect of that amount of Government Debt Securities, currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket, stock index or stock basket, commodity or commodity index, as shall in each case be set forth in or calculable from, the applicable prospectus supplement or as otherwise described in the prospectus supplement. Warrants may be exercised on the date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or as may be otherwise described in such prospectus supplement. After that date (or a later date declared by us), unexercised Warrants will become void.
Subject to any restrictions and additional requirements that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, Warrants may be exercised by delivering to the Warrant Agent the Warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed and of payment as provided in the prospectus supplement of the amount required to purchase the common stock, preferred stock or Debt Securities, or (except in the case of Warrants providing for cash settlement) payment for or delivery of the Government Debt Securities or currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index, currency basket, stock index, stock basket, commodity or commodities index purchased or sold upon exercise of the Warrants. Warrants will be deemed to have been exercised upon receipt of a Warrant certificate and the required payment, if applicable, at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement. We will, as soon as practicable thereafter, issue and deliver the Debt Securities purchasable upon such exercise, or purchase or sell such Government Debt Securities or currency, currency unit, composite currency, currency index or currency basket, stock index or stock basket, commodity or commodities, or pay the settlement value in respect of such Warrants. If fewer than all of the Warrants represented by a Warrant certificate are exercised, a new Warrant certificate will be issued for the remaining amount of the Warrants.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
General
The following is a description of the material terms of our capital stock. Because it is a summary, the following description is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our third amended and restated articles of incorporation, or articles, our third amended and restated by-laws, or by-laws, and the other agreements specifically referenced in this section.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 2,000,000,000 shares, of which 1,959,999,998 are shares of common stock, 40,000,000 are shares of preferred stock, one share is a special voting stock and one share is a special stock. As of January 18, 2018, there were 534,171,562 shares of common stock, no shares of preferred stock, one share of special voting stock and one share of special stock outstanding. The one share of special voting stock, which we refer to in this prospectus as the special voting share, and the one share of special stock, which we refer to in this prospectus as the equalization share, were issued in connection with the DLC transaction, which was completed on April 17, 2003. See “— Special Voting Share” and “— Equalization Share.”
Our common stock and the trust shares of beneficial interest in the P&O Princess Special Voting Trust, including the beneficial interest in the Carnival plc special voting share, are listed and trade together on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “CCL.”
Common Stock
Voting Rights
At any meeting of shareholders, all matters, except as otherwise expressly provided by Panamanian law and our articles or our by-laws, are decided by a majority of the votes cast by all shareholders entitled to vote, including, where applicable, the Carnival Corporation Special Voting Entity, as described below, who are present in person or by proxy at such meeting. In connection with the DLC transaction, special voting arrangements were implemented so that our shareholders and Carnival plc’s shareholders vote together as a single decision-making body on all actions submitted to a shareholder vote other than matters designated as “class rights actions” or resolutions on procedural or technical matters.
These are called JOINT ELECTORATE ACTIONS and include:

the appointment, removal or re-election of any director of us, Carnival plc or both;

if required by law, the receipt or adoption of the financial statements of us or Carnival plc or the annual accounts of both companies;

the appointment or removal of the auditors of either company;

a change of name by Carnival plc or us, or both; or

the implementation of a mandatory exchange based on a change in tax laws, rules or regulations.
The relative voting rights of the Carnival plc shares and our shares are determined by the equalization ratio. Based on the current equalization ratio of 1:1, each of our shares has the same voting rights as one Carnival plc share on joint electorate actions.
A change in the equalization ratio resulting from a share reorganization or otherwise would only affect voting rights on a per share basis. In the aggregate, such a change would not affect the relative weighting between our shareholders and the shareholders of Carnival plc.
In the case of class rights actions, the company wishing to carry out the class rights action would require the prior approval of shareholders of both companies, each voting separately as a class. If shareholders of either company do not approve the actio